Duodenal lipid-sensing mechanisms. Upon intake of nutrients, the duodenum activates a complex molecular and neuronal network
to lower hepatic glucose production. High-fat feeding induces duodenal CCK resistance and direct activation of PKA bypasses
the defect. High-fat feeding induces obesogenic microbiota and subequently alters CCK action. AC, adenylyl cyclase; CCK1-R,
CCK receptor; HFD, high-fat diet.