Weight cycling worsens systemic glucose tolerance and impairs AT insulin sensitivity. A–C: Metabolic parameters were evaluated in lean control, weight-gain, and weight-cycling mice after a 5-h fast. Fasting blood
glucose (A) and plasma insulin (B) concentrations. Groups not connected by the same letter are significantly different: P < 0.05. C: GTT (dose of 2 g/kg lean mass dextrose) and quantification of the area under the curve for the duration of the GTT (inset). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 compared with the LF/HF/HF group. D: Mice were injected with saline (Sal) or insulin (Ins) (0.5 units/kg) 15 min before sacrifice. Protein was isolated from
the epididymal AT. Western blot analysis of AT phospho-AKT (p-AKT; Ser473) protein levels (relative to total AKT). *P < 0.05 compared with saline-injected of same group; ###P < 0.001 compared with LF/LF/LF saline-injected group. Data are presented as mean ± SEM; n = 14–17 for glucose, insulin, and GTT; n = 4–6 for Western blots. White squares, LF/LF/LF (lean control group); gray diamonds, LF/HF/HF (weight-gain group); black
circles, HF/LF/HF (weight-cycling group). AUC, area under the curve; ns, not significant; phospho, phosphorylated.