South Asians (SAs) develop type 2 diabetes at a younger age and lower BMI compared with Caucasians (Cs). The underlying cause is still poorly understood but might result from an innate inability to adapt to the Westernized diet. This study aimed to compare the metabolic adaptation to a high-fat, high-calorie (HFHC) diet between both ethnicities. Twelve healthy, young lean male SAs and 12 matched Cs underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with skeletal muscle biopsies and indirect calorimetry before and after a 5-day HFHC diet. Hepatic triglyceride content (HTG) and abdominal fat distribution were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. At baseline, SAs had higher insulin clamp levels than Cs, indicating reduced insulin clearance rate. Despite the higher insulin levels, endogenous glucose production was comparable between groups, suggesting lower hepatic insulin sensitivity in SAs. Furthermore, a 5-day HFHC diet decreased the insulin-stimulated (nonoxidative) glucose disposal rate only in SA. In skeletal muscle, no significant differences were found between groups in insulin/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial respiratory chain content. Furthermore, no differences in (mobilization of) HTG and abdominal fat were detected. We conclude that HFHC feeding rapidly induces insulin resistance only in SAs. Thus, distinct adaptation to Western food may partly explain their propensity to develop type 2 diabetes.
See accompanying commentary, p. 53.
Clinical trial reg. no. NTR 2473, trialregister.nl.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/db13-0696/-/DC1.
- Received May 1, 2013.
- Accepted September 15, 2013.
- © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.
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