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Trends in Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes Among Non-Hispanic White Youth in the U.S., 2002–2009

  1. Ralph B. D’Agostino Jr.13
  2. for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group*
  1. 1Department of Research & Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA
  2. 2Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
  3. 3Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO
  4. 4Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
  5. 5School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
  6. 6National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
  7. 7Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD
  8. 8Barbara Davis Center, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO
  9. 9Division of Endocrinology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH
  10. 10Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH
  11. 11Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
  12. 12Sansum Diabetes Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA
  13. 13Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC
  14. 14Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC
  1. Corresponding author: Jean M. Lawrence, jean.m.lawrence{at}kp.org.

Abstract

The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study prospectively identified youth aged <20 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes. Annual type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence per 100,000 person-years (95% CI) overall, by age-group, and by sex were calculated for at-risk non-Hispanic white (NHW) youth from 2002 through 2009. Joinpoint and Poisson regression models were used to test for temporal trends. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of T1D increased from 24.4/100,000 (95% CI 23.9–24.8) in 2002 to 27.4/100,000 (26.9–27.9) in 2009 (P for trend = 0.0008). The relative annual increase in T1D incidence was 2.72% (1.18–4.28) per year; 2.84% (1.12–4.58) per year for males and 2.57% (0.68–4.51) per year for females. After adjustment for sex, significant increases were found for youth aged 5–9 years (P = 0.0023), 10–14 years (P = 0.0008), and 15–19 years (P = 0.004) but not among 0–4-year-olds (P = 0.1862). Mean age at diagnosis did not change. The SEARCH study demonstrated a significant increase in the incidence of T1D among NHW youth from 2002 through 2009 overall and in all but the youngest age-group. Continued surveillance of T1D in U.S. youth to identify future trends in T1D incidence and to plan for health care delivery is warranted.

  • Received December 15, 2013.
  • Accepted May 29, 2014.
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