Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass and Jejunectomy Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Goto-Kakizaki Diabetic Rats Without Changes in Incretins or Insulin Secretion

  1. Geltrude Mingrone6
  1. 1Department of Computer, Control, and Management Engineering “Antonio Ruberti,” University of Rome “Sapienza,” Rome, Italy
  2. 2Diabetes Complications Research Centre, UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  3. 3Institute of Systems Analysis and Computer Science, National Research Council, Rome, Italy
  4. 4Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
  5. 5Department of Surgery, Catholic University, School of Medicine, Rome, Italy
  6. 6Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University, School of Medicine, Rome, Italy
  1. Corresponding author: Serenella Salinari, salinari{at}dis.uniroma1.it.

Abstract

Gastric bypass surgery can dramatically improve type 2 diabetes. It has been hypothesized that by excluding duodenum and jejunum from nutrient transit, this procedure may reduce putative signals from the proximal intestine that negatively influence insulin sensitivity (SI). To test this hypothesis, resection or bypass of different intestinal segments were performed in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups: duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), jejunal resection (jejunectomy), ileal resection (ileectomy), pair-fed sham-operated, and nonoperated controls. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed within 2 weeks after surgery. Baseline and poststimulation levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were measured. Minimal model analysis was used to assess SI. SI improved after DJB (SI = 1.14 ± 0.32 × 10−4 min−1 ⋅ pM−1) and jejunectomy (SI = 0.80 ± 0.14 × 10−4 min−1 ⋅ pM−1), but not after ileectomy or sham operation/pair feeding in diabetic rats. Both DJB and jejunal resection normalized SI in diabetic rats as shown by SI levels equivalent to those of Wistar rats (SI = 1.01 ± 0.06 × 10−4 min−1 ⋅ pM−1; P = NS). Glucose effectiveness did not change after operations in any group. While ileectomy increased plasma GIP levels, no changes in GIP or GLP-1 were observed after DJB and jejunectomy. These findings support the hypothesis that anatomic alterations of the proximal small bowel may reduce factors associated with negative influence on SI, therefore contributing to the control of diabetes after gastric bypass surgery.

  • Received May 29, 2013.
  • Accepted November 13, 2013.

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  1. Diabetes vol. 63 no. 3 1069-1078
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