New Insight Into Early Events in Type 1 Diabetes: Role for Islet Stem Cell Exosomes

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Figure 1
Figure 1

Proposed effects of EXOs released by islet MSCs. Although there is the possibility that EXOs directly stimulate T and B cells, it is likely that EXOs affect DCs that, in turn, initiate anti-β-cell–specific T-cell response. EXOs may lead to the maturation of inflammatory DCs or “feed” DCs with relevant islet antigens. B7, B7-1, B7-2; FasL, Fas ligand; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TCR, T-cell receptor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 63 no. 3 835-837
  1. Free via Open Access: OA