Agonist-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) stimulates adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Patients with heterozygous PPARγ dominant-negative mutation develop partial lipodystrophy and insulin resistance. Inconsistent with this evidence in humans, it was reported that heterozygous PPARγ knockout mice have increased insulin sensitivity and that mice with heterozygous PPARγ dominant-negative mutation have normal insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance. In the context of the interspecies intranslatability of PPARγ-related findings, we generated a PPARγ mutant rat with a loss-of-function mutation (Ppargmkyo) without dominant-negative activity by using the ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis method. Heterozygous Ppargmkyo/+ rats showed reduced fat mass with adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance, which were highly predictable from known actions of PPARγ agonists and phenotypes of patients with the PPARγ mutation. This report is the first in our knowledge to clearly demonstrate that both alleles of PPARγ are required for normal adipocyte development and insulin sensitivity in vivo. Furthermore, the study indicates that PPARγ regulates mainly adipocyte number rather than adipocyte size in vivo. The choice of appropriate species as experimental models is critical, especially for the study of PPARγ.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/db15-1422/-/DC1.
- Received October 13, 2015.
- Accepted June 30, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.