Cerebrovascular Safety of Sulfonylureas: The Role of KATP Channels in Neuroprotection and the Risk of Stroke in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
Sulfonylureas are ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blockers commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Activation of KATP channels plays a neuroprotective role in ischemia; thus, whether sulfonylureas affect the outcomes of stroke in patients with T2DM needs to be further studied. In our study, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) showed larger areas of brain damage and poorer behavioral outcomes. Blocking the KATP channel by tolbutamide increased neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and permanent MCAO (pMCAO) in vivo. Activating the KATP channel by diazoxide reduced the effects of both the OGD and pMCAO. Western blot analysis in STZ mouse brains indicated an early increase in protein levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B and postsynaptic density protein-95, followed by a decrease in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β. Our systematic meta-analysis indicated that patients with T2DM treated with sulfonylureas had a higher odds ratio for stroke morbidity than those who received comparator drugs. Taken together, these results suggest that sulfonylurea treatment in patients with T2DM may inhibit the neuroprotective effects of KATP channels and increase the risk of stroke.
- Received December 21, 2015.
- Accepted May 11, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.