OBJECTIVE In humans, it is unclear if insulin resistance at the monocyte level is associated with atherosclerosis in vivo. Here we have studied first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes to investigate whether a reduction in components of the insulin signal transduction pathways, such as the insulin receptor (InsR) or InsR substrate 1 or 2 (IRS1 or IRS2), or a reduction in genetic modifiers of insulin action, such as the TIMP3/ADAM17 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3/A disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 17) pathway, is associated with evidence of atherosclerosis.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin sensitivity was analyzed through euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and subclinical atherosclerosis was analyzed through intimal medial thickness. Monocytes were isolated through magnetic cell sorting, and mRNA and proteins were extracted and analyzed by quantitative PCR and pathscan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively.
RESULTS In monocyte cells from human subjects with increased risk for diabetes and atherosclerosis, we found that gene expression, protein levels, and tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2, but not InsR or IRS1, were decreased. TIMP3 was also reduced, along with insulin resistance, determining increased ectodomain shedding activity of the metalloprotease ADAM17.
CONCLUSIONS Systemic insulin resistance and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with decreased IRS2 and TIMP3 expression in circulating monocytes.
- Received February 7, 2011.
- Accepted August 31, 2011.
- © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.
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