Inflammatory process is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this article, we show that cholecystokinin (CCK) is expressed in the kidney and exerts renoprotective effects through its anti-inflammatory actions. DNA microarray showed that CCK was upregulated in the kidney of diabetic wild-type (WT) mice but not in diabetic intracellular adhesion molecule-1 knockout mice. We induced diabetes in CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) and CCK-2R double-knockout (CCK-1R−/−,-2R−/−) mice, and furthermore, we performed a bone marrow transplantation study using CCK-1R−/− mice to determine the role of CCK-1R on macrophages in the diabetic kidney. Diabetic CCK-1R−/−,-2R−/− mice revealed enhanced albuminuria and inflammation in the kidney compared with diabetic WT mice. In addition, diabetic WT mice with CCK-1R−/− bone marrow–derived cells developed more albuminuria than diabetic CCK-1R−/− mice with WT bone marrow–derived cells. Administration of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S) ameliorated albuminuria, podocyte loss, expression of proinflammatory genes, and infiltration of macrophages in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Furthermore, CCK-8S inhibited both expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and chemotaxis in cultured THP-1 cells. These results suggest that CCK suppresses the activation of macrophage and expression of proinflammatory genes in diabetic kidney. Our findings may provide a novel strategy of therapy for the early stage of diabetic nephropathy.
- Received March 24, 2011.
- Accepted December 19, 2011.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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