HLA-A*24 Is an Independent Predictor of 5-Year Progression to Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive First-Degree Relatives of Type 1 Diabetic Patients
- Eric Mbunwe1,
- Bart J. Van der Auwera1,
- Ilse Vermeulen1,
- Simke Demeester1,
- Annelien Van Dalem1,
- Eric V. Balti1,
- Sara Van Aken2,
- Luc Derdelinckx3,
- Harry Dorchy4,
- Jean De Schepper5,
- Chris van Schravendijk1,
- Janet M. Wenzlau6,
- John C. Hutton6,
- Daniël Pipeleers1,
- Ilse Weets1,7⇓,
- Frans K. Gorus1,7,
- Belgian Diabetes Registry*
- 1Diabetes Research Center, Brussels Free University-VUB, Brussels, Belgium
- 2Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
- 3Department of Endocrinology, Clinique Saint-Luc, Bouge-Namur, Belgium
- 4Diabetology Clinic, University Children's Hospital Queen Fabiola, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
- 5Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Brussels Free University-UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
- 6Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, Colorado
- 7Department of Clinical Chemistry and Radio-immunology, University Hospital Brussels Free University-UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
- Corresponding author: Ilse Weets, .
E.M. and B.J.V.d.A. contributed equally to this study.
We investigated whether HLA-A*24 typing complements screening for HLA-DQ and for antibodies (Abs) against insulin, GAD, IA-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) for prediction of rapid progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Persistently Ab+ siblings/offspring (n = 288; aged 0–39 years) of T1D patients were genotyped for HLA-DQA1-DQB1 and HLA-A*24 and monitored for development of diabetes within 5 years of first Ab+. HLA-A*24 (P = 0.009), HLA-DQ2/DQ8 (P = 0.001), and positivity for IA-2A ± ZnT8A (P < 0.001) were associated with development of T1D in multivariate analysis. The 5-year risk increased with the number of the above three markers present (n = 0: 6%; n = 1: 18%; n = 2: 46%; n = 3: 100%). Positivity for one or more markers identified a subgroup of 171 (59%) containing 88% of rapid progressors. The combined presence of HLA-A*24 and IA-2A+ ± ZnT8A+ defined a subgroup of 18 (6%) with an 82% diabetes risk. Among IA-2A+ ± ZnT8A+ relatives, identification of HLA-A*24 carriers in addition to HLA-DQ2/DQ8 carriers increased screening sensitivity for relatives at high Ab- and HLA-inferred risk (64% progression; P = 0.002). In conclusion, HLA-A*24 independently predicts rapid progression to T1D in Ab+ relatives and complements IA-2A, ZnT8A, and HLA-DQ2/DQ8 for identifying participants in immunointervention trials.
* A complete list of the members of the Belgian Diabetes Registry can be found in the appendix.
- Received June 7, 2012.
- Accepted September 4, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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