Virus Antibody Survey in Different European Populations Indicates Risk Association Between Coxsackievirus B1 and Type 1 Diabetes

  1. and the VirDiab study group
  1. 1Department of Virology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
  2. 2Department of Virology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  3. 3Laboratory of Virology EA3610, University Lille 2 and CHR, Lille, France
  4. 4Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Nursing, National University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  5. 5Kings College London, London UK; current address, Public Health Laboratory Bristol, Public Health England, Bristol, UK
  6. 6Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  7. 7Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Finland
  8. 8Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
  9. 9Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  10. 10Department of Pediatrics, Tampere University Hospital and University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
  11. 11Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki. Finland
  12. 12School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
  13. 13Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, UK,
  14. 14Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping university, Linköping, Sweden
  15. 15Queen Mary & Westfield College, London, UK (deceased)
  16. 16Fimlab Laboratories, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland
  1. Corresponding author: Sami Oikarinen, E-mail: Sami.Oikarinen{at}


Enteroviruses have been connected to type 1 diabetes in various studies. The current study evaluates the association between specific enterovirus subtypes and type 1 diabetes by measuring type-specific antibodies against the group B coxsackieviruses (CBV) which has been linked to diabetes in previous surveys. Altogether 249 children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and 249 control children matched according to sampling time, gender, age and country were recruited in Finland, Sweden, England, France and Greece during the years 2001-2005 (mean age 9 years; 55 % boys). Antibodies against CBV1 were more frequent among diabetic children than in control children (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.0-2.9) while other CBV types did not differ between the groups. CBV1-associated risk was not related to HLA genotype, age or gender. Finnish children had lower frequency of CBV antibodies than children in other countries. The results support previous studies suggesting an association between group B coxsackieviruses and type 1 diabetes, highlighting the possible role of CBV1 as a diabetogenic virus type.

  • Received April 18, 2013.
  • Accepted July 31, 2013.

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