Trends in Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes Among non-Hispanic White Youth in the United States, 2002-2009

  1. for the SEARCH For Diabetes In Youth Study Group
  1. 1Department of Research & Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena CA
  2. 2Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA;
  3. 3Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO
  4. 4Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
  5. 5School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
  6. 6National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
  7. 7Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD
  8. 8Barbara Davis Center, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO
  9. 9Division of Endocrinology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati OH
  10. 10Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH
  11. 11Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
  12. 12Sansum Diabetes Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA
  13. 13Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC
  14. 14Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.
  1. Corresponding Author: Jean M. Lawrence, E-mail: Jean.M.Lawrence{at}


The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study prospectively identified youth less than 20 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes. Annual type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rate and 95 percent CI, overall, by age group and by sex, were calculated per 100,000 person-years at risk for 2002 through 2009 for non-Hispanic white (NHW) youth. Joinpoint and Poisson regression models were used to test for temporal trends. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of T1D increased from 24.4/100,000 (95% CI 23.9-24.8) in 2002 to 27.4/100,000 (95% CI 26.9-27.9) in 2009 (p for trend=0.0008). The relative annual increase in T1D incidence was 2.72% (1.18-4.28%) per year; 2.84% (1.12-4.58%) for males and 2.57% (0.68-4.51%) for females. After adjustment for sex, there were significant increases for those 5-9 years (p=0.0023), 10-14 years (p= 0.0008), and 15-19 years (p=0.004), but not among 0-4 year olds (p=0.1862). Mean age at diagnosis did not change. The SEARCH study demonstrated a significant increase in the incidence of T1D among NHW youth from 2002 through 2009 overall and in all but the youngest age group. Continued surveillance of T1D in youth in the United States to identify future trends in T1D incidence and to plan for health care delivery is warranted.

  • Received December 15, 2013.
  • Accepted May 28, 2014.

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