Despite the finding of over 40 risk loci for type 1 diabetes (T1D), the causative variants and genes remain largely unknown. Here, we sought to identify rare deleterious variants of moderate-to-large effects contributing to T1D. We deeply sequenced 301 protein-coding genes located in 49 previously reported T1D risk loci in 70 T1D cases of European ancestry. These cases were selected from putatively high-risk families that had three or more siblings diagnosed with T1D at early ages. A cluster of rare deleterious variants in PTPN22 was identified, including two novel frameshift mutations (ss538819444 and rs371865329) and two missense variants (rs74163663 and rs56048322). Genotyping in 3,609 T1D families showed that rs56048322 was significantly associated with T1D, and that this association was independent of the T1D-associated, common variant rs2476601. The risk allele at rs56048322 affects splicing of PTPN22 resulting in the production of two alternative PTPN22 transcripts and a novel isoform of LYP (the protein encoded by PTPN22). This isoform competes with the wild-type LYP for binding to CSK and results in hyporesponsiveness of CD4+ T cells to antigen stimulation in T1D subjects. These findings demonstrate that in addition to common variants, rare deleterious variants in PTPN22 exist and can affect T1D risk.
- Received March 6, 2015.
- Accepted November 23, 2015.
- © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.