Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) cleaves a large number of chemokine and peptide hormones involved in the regulation of the immune system. Additionally, DPP-4 may also be involved in macrophage-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of linagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-4, on macrophage migration and polarization in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DPP-4+ macrophages in lean and obese mice were quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. DPP-4 was predominantly expressed in F4/80+ macrophages in crown-like structures compared with adipocytes in WAT of DIO mice. FACS analysis also revealed that, compared with chow-fed mice, DIO mice exhibited a significant increase in DPP-4+ expression in cells within adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), particularly M1 ATMs. Linagliptin showed a greater DPP-4 inhibition and anti-oxidative capacity than sitagliptin, and reduced M1-polarized macrophage migration while inducing an M2 dominant shift of macrophages within WAT and liver, thereby attenuating obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Loss of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, a chemokine and DPP-4 substrate, in DIO mice abrogated M2 macrophage-polarizing and insulin-sensitizing effects of linagliptin. Therefore, the inhibition of DPP-4 by linagliptin reduced obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation by regulating M1/M2 macrophage status.
- Received March 12, 2016.
- Accepted July 5, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.