TABLE 1

Characteristics of women with and without type 1 diabetes

With diabetesWithout diabetes
SistersControl subjects
Characteristic(n = 143)(n = 186)(n = 160)P
Mean age at exam (years)42.642.441.30.26
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis42.730.419.4<0.001
Graves’ disease5.03.83.10.71
RA0.72.20.00.11
Mean age at menarche (years)13.512.512.6<0.001
Menstrual irregularities (<30 years of age)45.733.333.10.04
OC use44.079.080.0<0.001
Estrogens other than OC17.722.616.30.29
Infertility16.917.717.00.97
Nulliparous35.519.936.3<0.001
Mean number of pregnancies1.82.51.8<0.001
Hysterectomy16.210.89.40.16
Bilateral oophorectomy2.22.71.90.93
Unilateral oophorectomy5.93.32.50.29
Natural menopause12.512.710.40.80
Mean age at menopause* (years)41.649.948.00.05
Mean reproductive years30.037.035.20.05
Ever smoked41.848.450.60.29
Mean BMI24.625.227.80.002
College attendance64.665.675.60.07
Income >$40,000/year40.859.152.70.006
  • Data are % unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * These analyses excluded women with a premenopausal hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy and were based on 120, 165, and 144 women, respectively, of whom 15, 21, and 15 experienced natural menopause.