TABLE 1

Characteristics of the cohort that reached exam 5

No diabetesDiabetesP*
n1,674900
Age (years)76.9 ± 4.077.0 ± 4.1>0.2
Education (years)10.7 ± 3.110.7 ± 3.2>0.2
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)129.7 ± 15.8134.0 ± 16.7<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)81.8 ± 9.483.5 ± 9.9<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.6 ± 2.724.4 ± 2.8<0.001
Antihypertension treatment38.948.9<0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)216.2 ± 30.9220.2 ± 32.90.003
APOE ε4 (%)18.318.0>0.2
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)102.2 ± 8.3132.3 ± 39.5<0.001
2-h glucose (mg/dl)§138.5 ± 32.7247.0 ± 55.0<0.001
Fasting insulin (μIU/ml)13.5 ± 8.420.2 ± 27.2<0.001
2-h insulin (μIU/ml)§115.8 ± 92.3120.3 ± 89.2<0.001
Diabetes medications
 Oral hypoglycemic (%)24.7
 Insulin (%)5.8
Alcohol (g/day)11.3 ± 19.511.0 ± 20.6>0.2
Smoking status (%)
 Former34.933.9>0.2
 Current27.727.5>0.2
ABI1.05 ± 0.11.04 ± 0.20.112
Prevalent CHD (%)12.420.4<0.001
Prevalent stroke (%)3.64.80.192
Incident dementia (%)4.55.90.138
Incident VsD (%)1.01.90.080
Incident AD (%)2.23.50.127
Incident AD without CVD (%)1.82.2>0.2
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise specified.

  • *

    * Age-adjusted P values from linear and logistic regression models;

  • variable measured at exam 4;

  • variable measured at midlife;

  • §

    § among diabetic subjects the variable was available only for newly detected cases at exam 4;

  • variable measured at exam 5.