TABLE 2

Differences in gene transcript levels of type 2 diabetic patients (D2−) and insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients (D2+) in comparison with control subjects

Probe setFold Δ
Gene name
AB
Structural/contractile
 HG2743-HT2846↑3.3*(↑1.5)Caldesmon 1
 HG1862-HT1897↑2.0(↑2.9)§Calmodulin type I
 HG2175-HT2245↓4.9*(↓1.4)Myosin heavy chain polypeptide
 HG2260-HT2349↓3.9(↓1.4)Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy protein
 M21984↓3.2*(↓1.7)Troponin-T
 M21665↓3.1*(↓1.7)MHC-I
 HG3514-HT3708↓2.5*(↓1.2)Tropomyosin (cytoskeletal)
 X04201↓2.4*(↓1.9)*Tropomyosin (1.3 kb)
 X66276↓2.4*(↓2.0)§Skeletal muscle C-protein
 L21715↓2.3(↓2.1)§Troponin-I fast-twitch
 J04760↓2.2*(↓2.0)*Troponin-I slow-twitch
 M20642↓2.1(↓1.4)Myosin light chain
 M20543↓2.0(↓1.5)Skeletal muscle α-actin
 U35637↓2.0(↓1.5)Nebulin
 X13839↓1.9(↓1.8)Smooth muscle α-actin
 M33772↓1.9(↓2.1)*Troponin-C fast-twitch
Mitochondrial maintenance/chaperone
 X93511↓2.4*(↓1.3)Telomeric DNA binding protein
 X83416↓2.4§(↓1.4)PrP
 V00594↓2.2(↓1.6)MT
 X82200↓2.2(↓1.8)Staf50
 X65965↓2.2(↓1.2)SOD2
 HG2855-HT2995↑2.0*(↑3.2)*Heat shock protein, 70 kDa
Growth factors/tissue development/maintenance
 L27560↑2.5*(↑2.9)*IGFBP-5
 M55210↓3.9*(↓1.7)Laminin B2 chain
 L08246↓3.4(↓2.2)§MCL1
 AB000897↓2.8(↓2.1)§Cadherin FIB3
Insulin signaling/signal transduction/glucose metabolism
 HG2702-HT2798↓5.6(↓1.4)Serine/threonine kinase
 D23673↓2.8*(↓1.3)IRS-1
 L10717↑2.9(↓1.3)T-cell–specific tyrosine kinase
 L33881↓3.1(↓1.4)Protein kinase C-ι
 K03515↑2.3(↓1.4)Neuroleukin
 J04501↓2.4(↓1.6)Muscle glycogen synthase
 U27460↓2.3*(↓1.2)UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
 M91463↓2.1§(↓1.3)GLUT4
 M32598↓2.0*(↓1.2)Muscle glycogen phosphorylase
Energy metabolism
 D16480↑3.1*(↑1.6)Mitochondrial enoyl-CoA hydratase
 D10523↑2.3(↑1.2)2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase
 AF001787↓2.7§(↓1.4)UCP-3
 X13794↓2.7(↓1.4)Lactate dehydrogenase B
 M83186↓2.5(↓1.7)COX VIIa
 M19483↓2.4(↓1.4)ATP synthase β subunit
 U65579↓2.3(↓2.0)NADH dehydrogenase-ubiquinone
 X69433↓2.2(↓1.2)Mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase
 U94586↓2.2(↑1.2)NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase
 HG4747-HT5195↓2.1*(↓1.1)NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase MLRQ
 M22760↓2.1(↓1.3)COX Va
 U09813↓2.0§(↑1.2)ATP synthase subunit 9
 X83218↓2.0§(↓1.1)ATP synthase
 U17886↓2.0§(↓1.2)Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB)
 L32977↓1.9§(↑1.4)Ubiquinol cytochrome C reductase
Transcription factors/protein metabolism
 HG1428-HT1428↓2.1(↓1.4)Globin-β
 HG3635-HT3845↓3.8*(↓1.6)Zinc finger protein, krupple
 X69116↓3.7*(↓1.7)Zinc finger protein
 X16064↓2.2*(↓1.5)Translationally controlled tumor protein
 U37690↓2.0(↓1.3)RNA polymerase II subunit
 U95040↓2.1(↓1.2)hKAP1/TIF1B
 U65928↓1.9*(↓1.1)Jun activation domain binding protein
 HG3214-HT3391↑2.9*(↓1.8)Metallopanstimulin 1
 U73379↑2.3(↓1.3)Cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier
 X03689↑2.3(↓1.4)Elongation factor TU
 M17886↓2.1*(↓1.7)Acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P1
 U49869↓2.1*(↓1.5)Ubiquitin
 Z21507↓2.0(↓1.5)Elongation factor-1 Δ
 U14968↓1.9(↑1.5)Ribosomal protein L27a
 U14973↓1.9(↓1.4)Ribosomal protein S29
  • A, control versus D2− patients; B, control versus D2+ patients.

  • *

    * P < 0.01,

  • P > 0.05,

  • P < 0.05,

  • §

    § P < 0.0001,

  • P < 0.001, with P values calculated from t test on the average difference between control subjects and D2− (A) or D2+ (B) patients.