TABLE 5

Gene transcripts altered (which was normal in D2−) with 10 days of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetic patients

Fold ΔGene name
Structural/Contractile/ Growth factor
 ↑2.2*ACTN3
 ↑2.1*CO-029
 ↓2.7SM22
 ↓2.6*Sarcolipin
 ↓2.2*β-Tropomyosin
 ↓1.9Cytoskeletal gamma-actin
 ↑1.9*IGF-II
Protein metabolism/Signal transduction
 ↑2.0*eIF-4C
 ↑1.9*Ribosomal protein L21
 ↓2.6Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase
 ↓2.3*Ribosomal protein L37a
 ↓2.0*Elongation factor 1 alpha-2
 ↑2.3*AMP-activated protein kinase
 ↑2.1*Protein tyrosine phosphatase, alpha
 ↓2.7Tyrosine kinase receptor
 ↓2.5Adenylyl cyclase
Immune system/energy metabolism/cell adhesion
 ↑2.1*Class II histocompatibility antigen DC-α-chain
 ↑2.3HK1
 ↓1.9*NDUFV3
 ↓3.8*Fibronectin
 ↓2.4HSPG2
Tissue development/fatty acid metabolism
 ↑2.1Cadherin FIB2
 ↓2.4*Fatty acid binding protein
Transposition/extracellular matrix/unknown
 ↑2.0*Transposon-like element
 ↓2.3*Tenascin-X
 ↑3.0GOS2
 ↑2.6*H4 Histone
 ↓2.1*SCAMP1
 ↓2.0Phosphodieaterase 3B
  • *

    * P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.0001,

  • P < 0.05; P values were calculated from t test on the average difference between control and D2+ subjects. Metallopanstimulin 1 (↓1.8) was the only gene that showed <1.9-fold alteration in gene expression in D2− or D2+ patients compared with the control subjects, with a statistical significance in the above t test (P = 0.04).