TABLE 4

Univariate analyses of risk factors for type 2 diabetes

All subjects
Men
Women
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Sex (M vs. F)1.6 (1.1–2.2)0.0067
Family history of diabetes
    1st degree vs. control subjects2.2 (1.2–4.0)0.00772.2 (1.1–4.5)0.0372.3 (1.0–5.2)0.053
    1st/2nd degree vs. control subjects2.1 (1.2–3.8)0.0112.2 (1.1–4.4)0.0372.2 (1.0–5.0)0.066
Smoking (smokers vs. nonsmokers)1.5 (1.0–2.1)0.04051.6 (0.9–2.7)0.121.0 (0.5–2.0)0.95
BMI (kg/m2)2.1 (1.4–3.2)0.00021.5 (0.9–2.5)0.912.5 (1.3–4.6)0.0052
Waist-height index (cm/m2)2.3 (1.5–3.5)0.00021.4 (0.8–2.4)0.263.7 (1.8–7.7)0.0005
WHR2.1 (1.5–3.0)<0.00011.5 (0.9–2.6)0.0912.4 (1.4–4.1)0.0014
Waist (cm)2.1 (1.5–3.2)0.00011.9 (1.1–3.3)0.0282.1 (1.2–3.7)0.015
Fasting serum insulin (mU/l)1.8 (1.2–2.7)0.0021.8 (1.1–3.0)0.0201.7 (0.9–3.1)0.093
HOMAIR2.1 (1.4–3.3)0.00042.0 (1.2–3.3)0.00812.3 (1.2–4.5)0.017
Insulinogenic index1.5 (1.0–2.2)0.0391.6 (1.0–2.6)0.0561.2 (0.7–2.0)0.60
Disposition index2.7 (1.8–4.1)<0.00012.4 (1.4–4.3)0.00192.7 (1.5–5.0)0.0022
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.3 (0.9–1.9)0.231.1 (0.7–1.9)0.691.2 (0.6–2.2)0.58
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.6 (1.1–2.2)0.0161.4 (0.8–2.3)0.231.8 (1.0–3.2)0.058
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 (1.1–2.2)0.0251.7 (1.1–2.8)0.0271.8 (1.0–3.1)0.049
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.5 (1.0–2.2)0.0391.0 (0.6–1.7)0.991.6 (0.8–3.0)0.19
Metabolic equivalent (s/day3)1.3 (0.8–2.0)0.231.3 (0.8–2.2)0.291.3 (0.7–2.4)0.46
DMSWHO3.6 (2.5–5.2)<0.00012.8 (1.7–4.6)<0.00014.5 (2.7–7.4)<0.0001
DMSNCEP3.4 (2.4–4.9)<0.00012.8 (1.7–4.7)<0.00014.0 (2.4–6.7)<0.0001
Isolated IFG2.3 (1.4–3.7)0.00071.5 (0.8–3.0)0.243.8 (1.9–7.5)0.0002
Isolated IGT3.5 (2.1–5.8)<0.00014.4 (2.4–7.8)<0.00012.9 (1.3–6.5)0.0083
Combined IFG-IGT3.8 (2.3–6.2)<0.00013.1 (1.6–5.8)0.00064.5 (2.1–9.4)<0.0001
Combined family history of diabetes and DMSWHO9.4 (3.8–23.2)<0.00015.7 (1.8–17.8)0.002814.7 (3.6–60.6)0.0002
Combined family history of diabetes and DMSNCEP8.4 (3.8–18.3)<0.00015.9 (2.2–16.0)0.000510.9 (3.4–34.9)0.0001
  • Continuous variables are dichotomized into high and low values using the median as cutoff value; other comparisons are indicated. Subjects with combined risk factors are compared with those without any risk factors. All analyses except for BMI, waist-height index, and WHR were adjusted for BMI. DMSNCEP, dysmetabolic syndrome defined using NCEP criteria; DMSWHO, dysmetabolic syndrome defined using WHO criteria; HR, hazard ratio.