TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of the subjects according to glucose tolerance at baseline

NGT
IFG-IGT
MenWomenMenWomen
n638 (45)791 (55)329 (48)357 (52)
Smoking334/625 (53.4)208/777 (26.8)187/325 (57.5)70/349 (20)
Age (years)44 ± 1245 ± 12*49 ± 1251 ± 12*
BMI (kg/m2)25.7 ± 3.225.0 ± 4.026.6 ± 3.127.4 ± 5.1*
Waist-height index (cm/m2)29.3 ± 3.630.1 ± 4.430.9 ± 3.433.0 ± 5.0
WHR0.93 ± 0.060.82 ± 0.070.95 ± 0.060.84 ± 0.07†
HbA1c (%)5.4 ± 0.55.3 ± 0.5*5.5 ± 0.45.5 ± 0.6
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    Fasting5.52 (5.14–5.76)5.31 (5.0–5.65)6.22 (5.99–6.44)6.10 (5.65–6.33)
    2-h5.53 (4.75–6.23)5.73 (5.09–6.44)7.40 ± 1.548.05 ± 1.30
Serum insulin (mU/l)
    Fasting4.0 (3.0–5.7)4.0 (2.9–5.5)5.4 (4.0–8.3)5.3 (3.8–8.2)*
    2-h18.9 (11.1–30.1)23.8 (15.5–34.5)34.1 (21.0–62.7)47.2 (27.4–74.1)
HOMAIR0.97 (0.73–1.39)0.94 (0.68–1.32)1.47 (1.09–2.23)1.41 (0.96–2.21)*
Insulinogenic index11.3 (6.8–18.8)15.1 (9.0–27.9)11.2 (6.5–19.2)11.8 (7.2–21.1)
Disposition index11.2 (7.0–18.5)15.4 (8.9–29.4)7.0 (4.6–11.6)8.6 (5.3–14.8)*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)127.4 ± 15.5124.4 ± 16.8133.9 ± 18.0135.2 ± 20.2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78.4 ± 10.677.0 ± 9.9*81.6 ± 10.881.0 ± 11.3
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.56 ± 1.085.44 ± 1.12*5.72 ± 1.165.87 ± 1.13
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.67 ± 1.043.41 ± 1.113.75 ± 1.203.78 ± 1.06
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.28 ± 0.291.51 ± 0.321.18 ± 0.251.45 ± 0.32
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.14 (0.88–1.55)0.96 (0.73–1.29)1.39 (0.99–2.02)1.2 (0.87–1.64)
FFA (mmol/l)577.5 (484–710.3)706.9 ± 184.2657.5 (520–805.8)801.5 ± 261.3*
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dl)93.7 ± 21.085.7 ± 22.197.3 ± 22.295.3 ± 23.7*
Physical activity, metabolic equivalents (s/day)37.25 (4.75–9.25)5.88 (3.5–8.0)5.95 (3.75–8.04)5.0 (2.48–8.0)*
Physical activity level1.24 (1.16–1.32)1.21 (1.13–1.30)1.21 (1.12–1.29)1.19 (1.09–1.30)
  • Data are n (%), means ± SD, or median (interquartile range). P values for the comparison of men and women within each group of glucose tolerance are adjusted for differences in age and BMI.

  • *

    * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.0001.