TABLE 3

Serum potassium, cortisol, and GH concentrations and plasma glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and ACTH concentrations at each glycemic plateau during a hypoglycemic clamp and a euglycemic clamp

Hypoglycemic clamp
Euglycemic clamp
BG 4.5–5.5 mmol/lBG 3.0–3.5 mmol/lBG 2.0–2.5 mmol/lBG 4.5–5.5 mmol/lPBG 4.5–5.5 mmol/lBG 4.5–5.5 mmol/lBG 4.5–5.5 mmol/lBG 4.5–5.5 mmol/lP
Potassium (mmol/l)
    Diabetic patients3.7 ± 0.23.7 ± 0.23.6 ± 0.33.5 ± 0.2<0.0013.9 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.23.6 ± 0.23.6 ± 0.2<0.01
    Control subjects3.7 ± 0.33.6 ± 0.33.4 ± 0.23.5 ± 0.4<0.053.7 ± 0.23.6 ± 0.33.5 ± 0.33.5 ± 0.3<0.05
Glucagon (ng/l)
    Diabetic patients15.6 ± 4.614.8 ± 3.9*16.9 ± 4.714.3 ± 3.9<0.0516.5 ± 4.415.3 ± 3.615.0 ± 3.814.6 ± 4.8NS
    Control subjects19.5 ± 8.324.5 ± 8.042.4 ± 9.118.4 ± 8.8<0.00118.5 ± 9.717.4 ± 4.918.7 ± 9.818.3 ± 7.7NS
Epinephrine (nmol/l)
    Diabetic patients0.2 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.31.7 ± 1.60.4 ± 0.3<0.010.3 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.20.3 ± 0.20.2 ± 0.1NS
    Control subjects0.2 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.23.1 ± 1.40.4 ± 0.2<0.0010.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.1NS
Norepinephrine (nmol/l)
    Diabetic patients1.3 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.31.8 ± 0.61.5 ± 0.4<0.011.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.51.3 ± 0.3NS
    Control subjects1.4 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.42.2 ± 0.42.0 ± 0.7<0.011.1 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.21.2 ± 0.21.3 ± 0.1NS
Cortisol (μmol/l)
    Diabetic patients0.4 ± 0.20.4 ± 0.30.4 ± 0.30.4 ± 0.3NS0.4 ± 0.2*0.4 ± 0.30.3 ± 0.20.3 ± 0.2<0.01
    Control subjects0.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.10.5 ± 0.20.5 ± 0.1<0.0010.2 ± 0.00.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.0NS
ACTH (pmol/l)
    Diabetic patients6.8 ± 11.94.8 ± 3.111.3 ± 9.64.6 ± 2.1NS4.1 ± 2.64.8 ± 3.83.6 ± 1.33.6 ± 1.4NS
    Control subjects4.2 ± 1.74.1 ± 1.223.5 ± 11.45.7 ± 2.7<0.013.4 ± 1.34.3 ± 1.64.1 ± 1.14.0 ± 1.1NS
GH (μmol/l)
    Diabetic patients3.4 ± 5.74.9 ± 9.19.0 ± 6.68.4 ± 6.9<0.052.2 ± 3.53.2 ± 7.42.6 ± 4.92.6 ± 4.1NS
    Control subjects0.5 ± 0.60.3 ± 0.311.6 ± 9.610.5 ± 9.5<0.011.5 ± 2.40.3 ± 0.40.8 ± 1.70.2 ± 0.2NS
  • Data are means ± SD. The symbols indicate the difference between the diabetic patients and healthy control subjects in independent samples t test.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.001;

  • P < 0.05.

  • Δ, changes in a parameter between the third and first measurements at hypoglycemia and between the fourth and first measurements at euglycemia; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; BG, blood glucose.