TABLE 1

Demographic data of the examined groups*

Group 1 (trios with type 2 diabetes)
Group 2 (type 2 diabetes)
Group 3 (type 1 diabetes)
With diabetic nephropathyWithout diabetic nephropathyWith diabetic nephropathyWithout diabetic nephropathyWith diabetic nephropathyWithout diabetic nephropathy
n37877632136
Age (years)68.2 ± 10.564.3 ± 9.361.8 ± 10.665.4 ± 11.648.0 ± 11.741.9 ± 11.3
Sex (male/female)26/114/438/3930/3311/1013/23
Retinopathy (%)
    Proliferative56.850.058.44.895.25.6
    Nonproliferative37.825.037.715.94.811.1
    None5.425.03.979.4083.3
Arterial hypertension (%)79.287.570.146.090.52.8
Diabetes duration (years)12.5 ± 7.023.1 ± 8.014.9 ± 8.622.3 ± 6.925.5 ± 10.723.8 ± 8.1
A1C (%)7.6 ± 0.77.4 ± 1.27.5 ± 2.07.3 ± 1.77.0 ± 1.57.5 ± 1.3
Ethnicity (n)
    German3784218221
    Czech00113600
    Dutch00741915
    Arabic0011500
    Other006000
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Shown are the demographic data of the three examined groups. Patients without retinopathy in the groups with diabetic nephropathy had biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy.

  • Significant differences between the groups with and without diabetic nephropathy.

  • All German patients were of German extraction.