TABLE 1

Features of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes

CharacteristicCeliac diseaseType 1 diabetes
GeneticsHLA DQ2 (>85%)GraphicAccount for ∼50%HLA DQ8Graphic(>90%)GraphicAccount for ∼50%
(HLA DQ8)HLA DQ2
Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50%Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50%
Trigger of target cell damageInfection?Infection?
Driving antigenGlutenDietary?
AutoantibodiesReticulin antibodies, endomysial antibodies, tissue transglutaminase antibodiesInsulin autoantibodies, GAD and IA-2 antibodies
Outcome1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease