TABLE 1

Age- and sex-adjusted baseline characteristics by categories of baseline 25(OH)D: the Ely Study 1990–2000

25(OH)D categories at baseline
P value
<25 nmol/l25–49.9 nmol/l50–74.9 nmol/l≥75 nmol/l
n29155219121
Age (years)50 (47.2–52.8)52 (50.8–53.2)53.5 (52.5–54.5)53.7 (52.3–55.1)0.007
Women21 (72.4)106 (68.4)128 (58.5)55 (45.5)0.001
Family history of diabetes5 (17.2)27 (17.4)35 (16.0)14 (11.6)0.578
Smoking
    Former10 (34.5)32 (20.6)66 (30.1)44 (36.4)
    Current4 (13.8)32 (20.6)33 (15.1)25 (20.7)0.058
Social class (manual)13 (44.8)55 (35.5)78 (35.6)51 (42.1)0.446
BMI (kg/m2)24.6 (23.3–25.9)25.7 (25.1–26.3)25.5 (25–25.9)25.0 (24.3–25.6)0.449
Waist circumference (cm)80.9 (77.6–84.2)83.9 (82.5–85.4)81.9 (80.7–83.1)80.1 (78.5–81.7)0.010
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130.7 (124.9–136.5)129.4 (126.8–131.9)127.3 (125.2–129.5)122.8 (119.8–125.740.0008
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78.8 (75.2–82.5)79.1 (77.5–80.7)77.8 (76.5–79.2)74.73 (72.85–76.61)0.002
Total MET hours per day score12.5 (8.4–16.6)12.2 (10.5–13.9)14 (12.5–15.4)14.4 (12.5–16.4)0.090
IGF-1148.6 (129–168.2)147.5 (139–156)165.9 (158.8–173)161.7 (152–171.3)0.013
IGFBP-1*20.7 (16.3–26.4)22.5 (20.2–25)24.2 (22.1–26.4)25.2 (22.4–28.4)0.075
IGFBP-33.81 (3.53–4.1)3.81 (3.69–3.94)3.94 (3.84–4.05)3.98 (3.84–4.13)0.059
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.72 (5.55–5.9)5.69 (5.62–5.77)5.66 (5.6–5.73)5.57 (5.49–5.66)0.036
2-h glucose (mmol/l)5.85 (5.32–6.37)6.16 (5.93–6.39)6.02 (5.83–6.21)6.14 (5.89–6.4)0.754
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)*45.1 (37.4–54.4)39.8 (36.7–43.2)37.9 (35.4–40.6)33.5 (30.6–36.8)0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)6.43 (6.01–6.85)6.4 (6.22–6.59)6.46 (6.3–6.61)6.52 (6.31–6.72)0.466
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 (1.37–1.62)1.43 (1.38–1.49)1.52 (1.48–1.57)1.51 (1.45–1.57)0.098
Fasting triglyceride (mmol/l)*1.16 (0.99–1.37)1.17 (1.09–1.25)1.1 (1.03–1.16)1.12 (1.03–1.21)0.343
HOMA-IR index*1.64 (1.35–2.00)1.44 (1.32–1.57)1.37 (1.27–1.47)1.19 (1.08–1.31)0.0007
Metabolic syndrome risk z score0.04 (−0.18 to 0.25)0.11 (0.02–0.21)−0.01 (−0.09 to 0.07)−0.13 (−0.24 to −0.02)0.003
PTH (μg/l)*37.7 (32.6–43.5)30.2 (28.4–32.2)26.6 (25.2–28.0)24.3 (22.7–26.1)1.5E-09
Calcium (mmol/l)2.12 (2.08–2.16)2.11 (2.09–2.12)2.13 (2.12–2.15)2.15 (2.13–2.17)0.008
  • Data are n (%) or arithmetic or

  • *

    * geometric mean (95% CI), adjusted for age and sex (except age, adjusted for sex only). P values are the test for proportions for categorical variables or the test for linear trend for continuous traits.