TABLE 2

Multiple linear regression analysis of the association between baseline 25(OH)D (nmol/l) and 10-year follow-up metabolic syndrome outcomes: the Ely Study 1990–2000

Outcome per unit increase in baseline 25(OH)DModel 1
Model 2
Model 3
β (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P value
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)−0.0023 (−0.004 to −0.0004)0.019−0.0018 (−0.004 to 0.0002)0.082−0.0019 (−0.004 to 0.0002)0.074
2-h glucose (mmol/l)−0.0097 (−0.017 to −0.003)0.006−0.0094 (−0.017 to −0.002)0.011−0.01 (−0.018 to −0.002)0.013
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)−0.1467 (−0.258 to −0.035)0.010−0.1447 (−0.261 to −0.028)0.015−0.1682 (−0.3 to −0.037)0.012
Fasting triglyceride (mmol/l)−0.0009 (−0.003 to 0.002)0.47−0.0008 (−0.003 to 0.002)0.52−0.0009 (−0.003 to 0.002)0.47
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0.0004 (−0.0005 to 0.001)0.380.0004 (−0.001 to 0.001)0.400.0004 (−0.001 to 0.001)0.49
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)0.0005 (−0.031 to 0.032)0.980.0016 (−0.031 to 0.034)0.92−0.0001 (−0.036 to 0.036)1
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)−0.0006 (−0.051 to 0.05)0.980.0023 (−0.05 to 0.055)0.93−0.0067 (−0.065 to 0.052)0.82
Waist circumference (cm)0.0028 (−0.023 to 0.028)0.830.0062 (−0.02 to 0.033)0.650.015 (−0.013 to 0.043)0.3
HOMA-IR index−0.0059 (−0.01 to −0.002)0.005−0.0055 (−0.01 to −0.001)0.01−0.0063 (−0.011 to −0.002)0.009
Metabolic syndrome risk z score−0.0016 (−0.003 to −0.00001)0.048−0.0015 (−0.003 to 0.0002)0.075−0.0018 (−0.004 to 0.0001)0.06
  • Model 1: adjusted for baseline outcome variable, age, sex, smoking status, season, and BMI. Model 2: adjusted as in model 1 plus PTH, calcium, and IGF-1. Model 3: adjusted as in model 2 plus physical activity score and occupational social class.