Table 5

Association between PPARGC1A haplotypes and type 2 diabetes

Haplotype*FrequencyCoefficient βORP value
G-A0.410.8982.450.001
G-G0.160.8232.280.046
T-A0.200.0541.060.891
{T-G}0.23
  • * The two SNPs in haplotypes were arranged in the order of i5378 and i27289.

  • Haplotype frequencies were estimated using the expectation-maximization algorithm (36).

  • Coefficients, OR, and P values were estimated based on haplotype trend regression analysis with logistic regression option implemented in HelixTree program after adjustment for the same set of covariates as in Table 3. These haplotypes showed global association with type 2 diabetes at P = 0.002 after permutation correction for multiple tests.