TABLE 5

Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, and metabolic variables in response to a hypocaloric low-carbohydrate (n = 12) and low-fat diet (n = 12)

VariableLow-carbohydrate diet
Low-fat diet
Between-group P
Before dietAfter dietP*Before dietAfter dietP*
Weight (kg)97.7 ± 14.490.3 ± 12.9<0.0191.5 ± 11.185.0 ± 11.2<0.010.40
BMI (kg/m2)34.5 ± 4.231.9 ± 3.9<0.0132.8 ± 3.030.5 ± 3.0<0.010.51
Waist circumference (cm)107.0 ± 11.1102.4 ± 10.4<0.01105.1 ± 9.0100.0 ± 8.5<0.010.63
DEXA fat body mass (kg)38.8 ± 8.534.9 ± 9.0<0.0137.3 ± 6.533.5 ± 6.6<0.010.89
DEXA lean body mass (kg)54.4 ± 11.251.6 ± 9.8<0.0150.3 ± 9.948.6 ± 9.8<0.010.19
DEXA % body fat40.5 ± 6.638.9 ± 7.20.0341.5 ± 6.439.7 ± 7.1<0.010.77
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.5 ± 0.85.4 ± 0.70.785.6 ± 0.55.4 ± 0.40.320.69
Fasting serum insulin (mU/l)12.5 ± 6.27.4 ± 3.80.0111.4 ± 6.19.0 ± 4.40.020.17
A1C (%)5.3 ± 0.35.2 ± 0.003<0.015.4 ± 0.35.3 ± 0.40.410.36
GIR (μmol · kg−1 · min−1)23.5 ± 7.428.3 ± 6.90.0228.3 ± 9.530.2 ± 8.50.390.28
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.65 ± 1.064.05 ± 0.820.065.00 ± 0.994.12 ± 1.00<0.010.43
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.46 ± 1.082.1 ± 0.780.052.85 ± 0.882.41 ± 0.760.010.64
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.47 ± 0.401.35 ± 0.320.111.40 ± 0.391.15 ± 0.30<0.010.12
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.59 ± 0.550.91 ± 0.33<0.011.55 ± 0.901.43 ± 0.570.440.01
Leptin (ng/ml)35.6 ± 20.518.9 ± 18.3<0.0136.1 ± 18.722.6 ± 15.5<0.010.30
Retinol binding protein 4 (μg/ml)30.6 ± 4.626.5 ± 10.70.1830.2 ± 14.624.0 ± 5.20.110.63
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *Within-group comparisons analyzed by paired-samples t test.

  • †Between-group comparisons analyzed by ANOVA. GIR, glucose infusion rate during euglycemic clamp.