TABLE 1

Characteristics of control and type 2 diabetic subjects and Spearman's correlation coefficients between serum or urinary adiponectin levels and cardiovascular risk factors and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients

Control subjectsType 2 diabetic patientsP*Serum adiponectin
Urinary adiponectin
rPrP
n40156
Sex (male)25 (61.0)117 (75.0)0.017−0.290<0.001−0.0090.915
Age (years)51.9 ± 9.560.5 ± 7.8<0.0010.327<0.0010.1810.025
BMI (kg/m2)25.4 ± 4.633.1 ± 5.9<0.001−0.0410.613−0.0980.231
WHR0.87 ± 0.091.02 ± 0.08<0.001−0.286<0.0010.0620.453
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.52 ± 0.421.17 ± 0.35<0.0010.413<0.0010.0180.826
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.12 ± 0.722.66 ± 0.92<0.0010.1370.106−0.0130.877
Triglycerides (mmol/l)‡1.06 (0.80–1.71)1.87 (1.19–2.86)<0.001−0.311<0.001−0.0690.400
FPG (mmol/l)5.06 ± 0.68.03 ± 2.74<0.001−0.1670.0410.0730.375
A1C (%)5.5 ± 0.57.2 ± 1.2<0.001−0.1430.0850.0800.342
Creatinine clearance (ml/min)119.3 ± 41.2109.6 ± 40.70.146−0.2230.011−0.1560.074
Cystatin C (mg/l)0.57 ± 0.130.79 ± 0.31<0.0010.1410.084−0.0250.759
AER (mg/24h)‡<1043.9 (21.5–103.1)<0.001−0.0090.911−0.0310.707
High-sensitive CRP (mg/l)‡0.2 (0.1–0.6)2.3 (1.0–4.9)<0.001−0.1880.024−0.1520.069
Systolic blood pressure, 24 h (mmHG)124 ± 14140 ± 16<0.001−0.0250.7700.1240.137
Diastolic blood pressure, 24 h (mmHG)76 ± 980 ± 80.010−0.0930.2650.0310.715
Mean arterial pressure, 24 h (mmHG)92 ± 999 ± 10<0.001−0.0600.4720.0730.383
Duration of diabetes (years)‡11.0 (6.0–16.0)0.1350.0990.2110.009
Current smoker (yes)13 (31.7)25 (16.0)0.027−0.0540.509−0.0220.788
Patient with angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (yes: n; %)131 (84.0)0.1040.205−0.1910.019
Patient with statins (yes: n; %)91 (58.3)0.0740.3640.0160.846
Carotid IMT (mm)0.88 ± 0.15−0.2020.0170.479<0.001
Serum adiponectin (μg/ml)10.3 ± 6.67.0 ± 4.90.0330.1840.025
Urinary adiponectin (μg/g creatinine)2.91 ± 3.857.68 ± 14.260.0080.1840.025
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range).

  • *P for type 2 diabetic versus control subjects (by independent t test for normally distributed data or Mann-Whitney U test for not normally distributed data).

  • P by bivariate Spearman correlation analysis.