TABLE 1

Summary of prospective epidemiological studies of sedentary behavior and mortality in humans

Study (ref.)Sample sizeFollow-upSedentary behaviorsOutcomesHR (95% CI)P for trend
Japan Public Health Center (JPHC) Study (34)83,034 men and women8.7 yearsDaily sittingAll-cause mortality*
    Men
        <3 h/day1.00
        3–8 h/day1.02 (0.95–1.11)
        ≥8 h/day1.18 (1.04–1.35)
    Women
        <3 h/day1.00
        3–8 h/day0.95 (0.85–1.06)
        ≥8 h/day1.10 (0.82–1.25)
Canada Fitness Survey (30)17,013 men and women12.0 yearsDaily sittingAll-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality
    All-cause mortality
        None1.00
        ¼ of time1.00 (0.86–1.18)
        ½ of time1.11 (0.94–1.30)
        ¾ of time1.36 (1.14–1.63)
        All of time1.54 (1.25–1.91)
<0.0001
    CVD mortality
        None1.00
        ¼ of time1.01 (0.77–1.31)
        ½ of time1.22 (0.94–1.60)
        ¾ of time1.47 (1.09–1.96)
        All of time1.54 (1.09–2.17)
<0.0001
    Cancer mortality
        None1.00
        ¼ of time0.92 (0.71–1.20)
        ½ of time0.91 (0.69–1.20)
        ¾ of time0.96 (0.69–1.33)
        All of time1.07 (0.72–1.61)
NS
Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study (31)8,800 men and women6.6 yearsTV viewingAll-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality
    All-cause mortality
        <2 h/day1.00
        2–4 h/day1.13 (0.87–1.36)
        ≥4 h/day1.46 (1.04–2.05)
    CVD mortality
        None1.00
        2–4 h/day1.19 (0.72–2.00)
        ≥4 h/day1.80 (1.00–3.25)
    Cancer mortality
        None1.00
        2–4 h/day1.12 (0.75–1.66)
        ≥4 h/day1.48 (0.88–2.49)
Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) (33)7,744 men21.0 yearsTV viewing, riding in carCVD mortality§
    TV viewing
        <4 h/week1.00
        4–8 h/week1.02 (0.74–1.42)
        8–12 h/week1.27 (0.90–1.78)
        >12 h/week0.96 (0.68–1.36)
0.94
    Riding in car
        <4 h/week1.00
        4–7 h/week1.09 (0.77–1.54)
        7–10 h/week1.33 (0.96–1.83)
        >10 h/week1.37 (1.01–1.87)
0.01
EPIC-Norfolk Study (32)13,197 men and women9.5 yearsTV viewingAll-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality
    All-cause mortality
        per h/day1.05 (1.01–1.09)
    CVD mortality
        per h/day1.08 (1.01–1.16)
    Cancer mortality
        per h/day1.04 (0.98–1.10)
  • *Adjusted for age, geographic area, occupation, history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol intake, BMI, total energy intake, heavy physical work or strenuous exercise, walking or standing, and leisure-time sports or exercise;

  • ‡adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, and physical activity readiness;

  • †adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, total energy intake, alcohol intake, diet quality index, waist circumference, hypertension, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid-lowering medication use, glucose tolerance status, and exercise time;

  • §adjusted for age, physical inactivity, current smoker, alcohol intake, BMI, family history of CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia; and

  • ‖adjusted for age, gender, education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, history of diabetes, family history of CVD, family history of cancer, total physical activity energy expenditure, and medication use for hypertension or dyslipidemia (not in models for cancer mortality). NS, not significant.