TABLE 2

Multivariable-adjusted mean (SE) of cognitive scores by severity of DR in men and women

MenWomen
No DRMild DRModerate-to-severe DRP for trendEffect of DR*No DRMild DRModerate-to-severe DRP for trendEffect of DR*
n3471612735813120
Age adjusted
    VFT38.0 (0.7)36.0 (1.0)31.5 (2.5)0.00636.8 (0.7)36.6 (1.1)36.9 (2.9)0.965
    FACES65.0 (0.4)64.1 (0.6)62.4 (1.4)0.05267.6 (0.4)67.5 (0.7)64.8 (1.8)0.277
    Ln (TMTB)4.68 (0.02)4.70 (0.03)4.94 (0.08)0.0134.65 (0.02)4.68 (0.04)4.82 (0.09)0.126
    DST48.2 (0.7)45.8 (1.1)36.8 (2.7)<0.00152.4 (0.8)51.1 (1.3)44.3 (3.3)0.037
    LM24.8 (0.4)24.2 (0.6)23.8 (1.5)0.40026.1 (0.4)26.8 (0.7)23.2 (1.9)0.711
    MR13.4 (0.3)14.0 (0.4)12.2 (1.0)0.97112.0 (0.3)12.3 (0.5)14.3 (1.2)0.106
    LNS9.8 (0.2)9.8 (0.2)9.0 (0.6)0.4739.6 (0.1)9.6 (0.2)9.2 (0.6)0.599
    g0.01 (0.05)−0.10 (0.08)−0.63 (0.19)0.0030.08 (0.05)0.03 (0.09)−0.24 (0.23)0.222
    MHVS31.1 (0.3)32.0 (0.4)31.2 (1.0)0.24530.7 (0.3)30.3 (0.4)29.0 (1.1)0.138
Age and MHVS adjusted
    VFT38.4 (0.6)35.5 (0.9)31.7 (2.3)<0.00136.6 (0.6)36.9 (1.0)38.7 (2.5)0.533
    FACES65.1 (0.4)63.9 (0.6)62.4 (1.4)0.01667.5 (0.4)67.6 (0.7)65.6 (1.7)0.512
    Ln (TMTB)4.67 (0.02)4.71 (0.03)4.93 (0.07)0.0024.65 (0.02)4.67 (0.03)4.77 (0.08)0.268
    DST48.5 (0.7)45.4 (1.037.0 (2.4)<0.00152.4 (0.7)51.3 (1.2)46.1 (3.0)0.072
    LM24.9 (0.4)23.8 (0.6)23.9 (1.4)0.14826.0 (0.4)27.0 (0.7)24.4 (1.7)0.723
    MR13.5 (0.2)13.7 (0.4)12.3 (0.9)0.58412.0 (0.3)12.3 (0.4)14.9 (1.0)0.052
    LNS9.9 (0.1)9.7 (0.2)9.1 (0.5)0.1859.6 (0.1)9.7 (0.2)9.5 (0.5)0.934
    g0.04 (0.04)−0.15 (0.06)−0.61 (0.15)<0.0010.05 (0.04)0.07 (0.07)−0.05 (0.18)0.828
Fully adjusted
    VFT38.4 (0.7)35.5 (1.0)32.0 (2.4)0.0010.02037.0 (0.7)37.3 (1.0)39.8 (2.6)0.4170.001
    FACES65.1 (0.4)64.1 (0.6)63.2 (1.5)0.0620.00667.6 (0.4)67.8 (0.7)66.2 (1.7)0.8110.000
    Ln (TMTB)4.67 (0.02)4.71 (0.03)4.91 (0.08)0.0090.0124.66 (0.02)4.67 (0.04)4.74 (0.09)0.3640.002
    DST49.0 (0.7)45.6 (1.0)38.8 (2.6)0.0010.03252.4 (0.8)50.8 (1.2)46.6 (3.1)0.0600.006
    LM24.7 (0.5)23.8 (0.6)24.0 (1.5)0.2360.00226.1 (0.5)26.9 (0.7)24.5 (1.7)0.8570.000
    MR13.5 (0.3)13.8 (0.4)12.6 (0.9)0.8570.00012.1 (0.3)12.5 (0.5)14.7 (1.1)0.0560.006
    LNS9.8 (0.2)9.7 (0.2)9.5 (0.5)0.4810.0019.6 (0.1)9.7 (0.3)9.6 (0.6)0.9070.000
    g0.04 (0.05)−0.14 (0.07)−0.49 (0.15)<0.0010.0200.07 (0.05)0.08 (0.07)0.02 (0.18)0.9190.000
  • †Further adjusted for education, alcohol intake, smoking status, WHR, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, major macrovascular disease, and depression symptoms.

  • *Effect size of DR as indexed by η2 (the proportion of variance) in the fully adjusted model. Bold values are statistically significant values (P ≤ 0.05).