TABLE 1

Characteristics of 46,368 participants from 31 cohorts employed in the meta-analysis

CohortN males/femalesAge (years) men/womenBMI (kg/m2) men/womenHbA1C (%, NGSP) men/womenFasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) men/women
ARIC3,106/3,67157.4 (5.7)/56.7 (5.6)27.33 (3.89)/26.63 (5.30)5.41 (0.38)/5.37 (0.36)5.75 (0.50)/5.52 (0.50)
B58C-T1DGC1,217/1,28445.3 (0.3)/45.2 (0.3)27.93 (4.12)/26.86 (5.5)5.18 (0.48)/5.22 (0.51)
B58C-WTCCC711/71744.9 (0.4)/44.9 (0.4)27.79 (4.21)/26.84 (5.41)5.21 (0.68)/5.21 (0.51)
BLSA253/23572.2 (13.5)/67.2 (15.6)26.99 (3.92)/25.87 (4.94)5.44 (0.53)/5.45 (0.45)5.25 (0.56)/4.99 (0.48)
Croatia275/38454.8 (15.0)/55.2 (15.8)27.43 (3.65)/26.94 (4.59)5.25 (0.49)/5.31 (0.55)5.40 (0.66)/5.26 (0.65)
deCODE170/17266.1 (14.4)/63.8 (16.0)28.20 (4.00)/28.0 (4.90)5.80 (0.95)/5.77 (1.25)
DESIR178/53853.1 (5.6)/49.5 (8.5)23.15 (1.16)/21.36 (1.85)5.25 (0.38)/5.16 (0.38)5.11 (0.32)/5.01 (0.38)
DGI218/26259.1 (10.6)/59.5 (10.6)26.42 (3.12)/26.29 (4.29)5.73 (0.56)/5.61 (0.59)5.50 (0.52)/5.39 (0.45)
DIAGEN429/57159.0 (14.2)/59.0 (15.4)27.08 (3.61)/26.80 (4.82)5.59 (0.65)/5.50 (0.61)
Epic 5,0001,732/1,62757.6 (9.4)/54.0 (9.0)25.75 (2.60)/24.84 (3.38)5.19 (0.55)/5.08 (0.55)
EPIC cases409/54860.8 (8.9)/60.2 (9.1)32.55 (2.53)/33.44 (3.24)5.58 (0.97)/5.47 (0.62)
EPIC cohort859/1,05261.3 (9.3)/60.0 (9.2)26.79 (3.31)/26.33 (4.36)5.38 (0.56)/5.32 (0.57)
Fenland606/77244.4 (7.4)/45.4 (7.2)27.56 (3.91)/26.59 (5.35)5.42 (0.37)/5.37 (0.37)5.01 (0.47)/4.74 (0.48)
FHS886/1,11054.7 (10.0)/54.1 (9.9)27.85 (3.92)/26.13 (4.97)5.24 (0.62)/5.25 (0.61)5.36 (0.48)/5.14 (0.49
GenomeEUtwin0/568—/55.1 (21.8)—/24.6 (4.18)—/5.11 (0.68)—/5.24 (0.55)
HEALTH2000580/62549.1 (10.4)/51.7 (11.4)25.69 (3.26)/25.32 (4.19)5.22 (0.29)/5.06 (0.32)5.34 (0.48)/5.17 (0.42)
Lolipop582/18853.2 (10.4)/51.2 (10.5)27.49 (3.92)/26.74 (5.33)5.05 (0.54)/5.34 (0.38)5.51 (1.45)/5.35 (1.75)
LURIC215/19554.1 (12.6)/61.1 (11.1)26.90 (3.60)/26.60 (4.00)5.80 (0.60)/5.90 (0.60)
KORA F3711/75162.3 (10.2)/61.6 (10.1)27.89 (3.49)/27.70 (4.95)5.30 (0.38)/5.33 (0.31)
KORA S4844/89253.9 (8.9)/53.4 (8.8)27.91 (3.87)/27.25 (4.89)5.57 (0.46)/5.59 (0.45)
METSIM1,789/057.0 (7.3)/—26.63 (3.76)/—5.56 (0.32)/—
NHANES III468/74651.3 (20.6)/51.4 (20.3)26.92 (4.85)/26.37 (5.81)5.38 (0.50)/5.15 (0.55)
NTR513/93947.7 (14.4)/43.3 (13.7)25.58 (3.28)/24.59 (4.02)5.27 (0.46)/5.28 (0.45)5.53 (0.51)/5.32 (0.51)
ORCADES298/35353.7 (15.3)/52.2 (15.4)27.79 (4.14)/27.30 (5.11)5.40 (0.49)/5.41 (0.51)5.45 (0.51)/5.18 (0.49)
Partners/Roche291/35752.7 (12.9)/52.5 (12.7)27.80 (5.20)/27.10 (7.30)5.49 (0.48)/5.47 (0.45)
PROCARDIS687/14460.5 (6.7)/62.8 (6.3)27.65 (3.58)/28.11 (4.98)5.98 (1.07)/6.17 (1.10)
SardiNIA1,418/1,92846.5 (17.1)/45.2 (16.0)26.36 (3.99)/24.65 (4.82)5.47 (0.52)/5.39 (0.45)4.96 (0.59)/4.67 (0.54)
SHIP1,696/1,84249.0 (16.0)/47.0 (16.0)27.30 (3.90)/26.60 (5.20)5.3 (0.60)/5.2 (0.60)
Sorbs254/37646.6 (16.2)/46.4 (15.8)26.90 (3.60)/26.7 (5.50)5.35 (0.37)/5.36 (0.38)5.47 (0.49)/5.21 (0.57)
SardiNIA stage2555/89046.4 (15.1)/46.3 (15.8)26.36 (3.48)/24.61 (4.60)5.45 (0.85)/5.31 (0.86)
Segovia274/30953 (12)/55 (12)27.35 (3.15)/27.41 (4.68)5.17(0.49)/5.17 (0.45)
  • Data are mean (SD). Fifteen cohorts were included in the fasting-glucose adjusted analysis shown in Table 2 (ARIC, BLSA, CROATIA, Fenland, FHS, DESIR, GENOMEUTWIN, Lolipop, NTR, ORCADES, SardiNIA, KORA F4, DGI, Sorbs and Health2000). BLSA, DGI, Fenland, FHS, KORA F4 and Sorbs were used for analyses that included 2-h glucose. The mean (mmol/l), SE and N for 2-h glucose levels for males and females, respectively, were: 6.96 (2.47) (236)/6.42 (2.04) (207) in BLSA; 5.75 (1.20) (209)/6.15 (1.25) (254) in DGI; 5.27 (1.41) (600)/5.16 (1.35) (757) in Fenland, 5.744 (1.614) (858)/5.992 (1.707) (1,067) in FHS, and 5.19 (2.02) (254)/5.54 (1.96) (376) in Sorbs. Fasting glucose was not available in KORA S4, thus conditional models were run in KORA F4, a follow-up visit of KORA S4 samples. Mean and SE 2-h glucose levels in males and females, respectively, were: 5.66 (0.67)/5.60 (0.57) for HbA1C and 5.82 (1.20)/5.40 (1.01) for glucose. Cohorts in italics provided only de novo genotyping data). The means for Hb (g/l, males/females) were 148.39 (10.29)/135.94 (9.55) (KORA F3), 148.21 (10.00)/134.51 (9.15) (KORA F4), 152.38 (11.33)/136.56 (10.38) (NHANES III) and 148.54 (12.12)/130.83 (11.60) (SardiNIA). The means for MCV (pg, males/females) were 92.32 (3.91)/90.74 (4.08) (KORA F3), 92.04 (4.23)/90.83 (4.38) (KORA F4), 89.69 (4.45)/89.40 (4.34) (NHANES III) and 87.29 (9.28)/85.64 (9.22) (SardiNIA). The means for MCH (fl, males/females) were 31.22 (1.51)/30.60 (1.64) (KORA F3), 31.50 (1.62)/30.89 (1.73) (KORA F4), 30.50 (1.74)/30.22 (1.67) (NHANES III) and 29.14 (3.60)/28.40 (3.69) (SardiNIA). The means for Iron (ìmol/l, males/females) were 17.66 (5.34)/16.29 (5.25) (KORA F3), 22.41 (6.87)/20.53 (6.53) (KORA F4), 18.78 (6.53)/17.03 (6.96) (NHANES III) and 18.01 (6.23)/15.30 (5.98) (SardiNIA). The means for Transferrin (g/l, males/females) were 2.45 (0.33)/2.56 (0.36) (KORA F3), 2.51 (0.35)/2.54 ( 0.38) (KORA F4), n.a. (NHANES III) and 1.96 (0.52)/2.07 (0.579) (SardiNIA).