TABLE 2

Baseline characteristics (1985–1986) and family history of diabetes for lactation categories stratified by GDM status (1986–2006)

CharacteristicsWomen with non-GDM births, lactation categories
0–1 month>1–5 months6–9 months>9 monthsP*
n157157152154
Race (black)99 (63.1)74 (47.1)49 (32.2)24 (15.6)<0.001
Education (≤HS)73 (46.5)44 (28.0)31 (20.4)23 (14.9)<0.001
Smoker (current)42 (26.8)40 (25.5)22 (14.5)20 (13.0)0.001
Family history of diabetes51 (32.5)53 (33.8)37 (24.3)26 (16.9)0.002
Age (years)22.9 ± 3.623.6 ± 3.323.9 ± 3.724.5 ± 3.7<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.2 ± 4.922.9 ± 4.022.6 ± 3.722.0 ± 3.1<0.001
Waist girth (cm)72.9 ± 9.070.3 ± 8.069.1 ± 7.369.3 ± 6.2<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)106.1 ± 9.1105.6 ± 8.5106.1 ± 9.2104.6 ± 9.20.41
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)65.5 ± 8.765.4 ± 9.666.2 ± 8.865.9 ± 8.60.87
Fasting
    Glucose (mg/dl)78.9 ± 7.578.9 ± 7.179.9 ± 6.579.5 ± 6.70.50
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)55.9 ± 12.257.8 ± 12.859.1 ± 11.758.4 ± 12.70.13
    TGs (mg/dl)66.7 ± 33.058.7 ± 23.459.0 ± 26.865.0 ± 54.20.11
Dietary intake (% kJ)
    Total fat37.4 ± 6.537.9 ± 6.337.0 ± 5.235.4 ± 6.2<0.01
    Saturated fat14.0 ± 3.114.0 ± 3.114.0 ± 2.713.1 ± 2.90.01
    Carbohydrate47.1 ± 8.146.3 ± 7.346.8 ± 6.648.0 ± 7.80.23
    Fiber (g)/1,000 kJ0.47 ± 0.260.55 ± 0.240.60 ± 0.260.66 ± 0.34<0.001
Alcohol intake (ml/day)†0.0 (7.6)2.4 (9.5)2.4 (9.7)4.8 (12.1)0.07
Physical activity score†258.0 (280.0)320.0 (317.0)334.0 (382.0)402.0 (362.0)<0.001
Women with GDM births, lactation categories
0–1 month>1–5 months6–9 months>9 monthsP*
n22171728
Race (black)16 (72.7)7 (41.2)4 (23.5)6 (21.4)0.001
Education (≤HS)8 (36.4)6 (35.3)2 (11.8)2 (7.1)0.03
Smoker (current)10 (45.5)9 (52.9)6 (35.3)3 (10.7)0.03
Family history of diabetes11 (50.0)3 (17.6)6 (35.3)13 (46.4)0.16
Age (years)22.8 ± 4.022.4 ± 3.724.2 ± 3.924.9 ± 3.60.10
BMI (kg/m2)27.0 ± 8.323.5 ± 4.523.9 ± 4.722.6 ± 4.10.05
Waist girth (cm)79.5 ± 18.770.8 ± 7.872.1 ± 9.170.5 ± 8.20.05
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)108.4 ± 8.0102.6 ± 7.7103.3 ± 8.6107.6 ± 10.40.10
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)70.3 ± 7.360.4 ± 10.765.2 ± 7.068.7 ± 8.8<0.01
Fasting
    Glucose (mg/dl)80.0 ± 8.778.8 ± 10.881.8 ± 9.182.9 ± 9.20.48
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)52.7 ± 13.153.3 ± 12.756.9 ± 15.456.9 ± 11.70.59
    TGs (mg/dl)74.5 ± 25.970.6 ± 35.764.1 ± 30.070.0 ± 34.30.79
Dietary intake (% kJ)
    Total fat37.3 ± 5.637.0 ± 3.340.4 ± 7.837.7 ± 5.60.29
    Saturated fat14.4 ± 2.814.0 ± 1.915.3 ± 4.513.8 ± 3.00.44
    Carbohydrate47.4 ± 6.746.3 ± 5.443.8 ± 8.846.2 ± 6.90.46
    Fiber (g)/1,000 kJ0.41 ± 0.160.48 ± 0.200.50 ± 0.220.62 ± 0.23<0.01
Alcohol intake (ml/day)†1.2 (7.6)7.3 (18.4)7.9 (15.2)2.4 (8.6)0.29
Physical activity score†233.0 (297.0)292.0 (153.0)429.0 (334.0)280.5 (309.0)0.22
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD. χ2 test was used for categorical baseline characteristics; one-way ANOVA was used for continuous baseline characteristics.

  • *Two-sided P value.

  • †Median (interquartile range), Kruskal-Wallis test.