TABLE 1

Characteristics of the 1,211 patients evaluated for retinopathy after 10 years of EDIC follow-up by age (adults vs. adolescents) and DCCT treatment group (INT vs. CON)

Adolescents (n = 156)Adults (n = 1,055)
CONINTP*CONINTP*
n8373532523
At DCCT entry
    Women (%)56.646.60.209944.949.90.1053
    Age (year)14.8 ± 1.415.1 ± 1.30.089428.4 ± 5.628.9 ± 5.70.1957
    Primary prevention cohort (%)67.554.80.104448.748.40.9199
    Duration of diabetes (year)4.8 ± 3.45.5 ± 3.50.14815.9 ± 4.26.1 ± 4.30.4880
    AER >40 mg/24 h (%)7.28.20.81684.74.60.9321
    Severity of retinopathy (%)
        None67.554.80.176548.748.40.0661
        Microaneurysms only21.737.029.034.8
        Mild nonproliferative retinopathy7.26.916.912.2
        Moderate or severe nonproliferative retinopathy3.61.45.54.6
At EDIC entry
    DCCT follow-up (year)7.2 ± 1.97.5 ± 1.90.20886.2 ± 1.66.2 ± 1.60.4639
    Severity of retinopathy (%)
        None8.416.40.100419.330.2<0.0001
        Microaneurysms only37.442.530.839.4
        Mild nonproliferative retinopathy27.728.827.720.5
        Moderate or severe nonproliferative retinopathy26.512.322.39.9
    Photocoagulation during DCCT (%)
        Scatter, for severe retinopathy4.84.10.83084.01.30.0084
        Focal, for macular edema1.21.40.92726.02.30.0025
    AER >40 mg/24 h (%)20.720.80.987610.85.60.0021
    AER >300 mg/24 h (%)4.95.61.00002.71.00.0613
    Mean blood pressure (mmHg)87.0 ± 7.887.1 ± 9.40.757288.4 ± 8.888.9 ± 8.50.3461
    Elevated lipid (%)§12.15.50.152110.37.50.1005
Treatment at EDIC year 10 (%)
    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (pump) or multiple daily injections91.094.40.422392.496.90.0016
    Self-monitoring of blood glucose ≥4 times/day38.964.50.001861.155.80.0866
Glycemic control
    A1C at DCCT eligibility (%)9.5 ± 1.89.6 ± 1.70.43678.9 ± 1.69.0 ± 1.50.3439
    DCCT mean A1C (%)9.7 ± 1.28.1 ± 1.1<0.00018.9 ± 1.27.2 ± 0.8<0.0001
    EDIC mean A1C up to year 10 (%)8.2 ± 2.18.2 ± 1.30.88928.1 ± 1.18.0 ± 1.10.0713
    DCCT-EDIC mean A1C up to year 10 (%)8.8 ± 1.08.2 ± 1.10.00058.4 ± 1.07.7 ± 0.9<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *P values were based on Wilcoxon rank-sum test for quantitative or ordinal variables, or χ2/Fisher exact test for categoric variables.

  • P < 0.05 for comparison between adolescents and adults as a whole.

  • ‡The baseline data in the EDIC study were the same as the data at the end of the DCCT.

  • §Elevated lipid is defined as two consecutive reports of hypercholesterolemia (LDL cholesterol >160 mg/dl) and/or hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides >500 mg/dl) within 1 month during DCCT. Data in boldface are statistically significant.