TABLE 4

HRs of use of insulin vs. nonuse for first incident cancers in a cohort of 971 insulin new users and 1,935 insulin nonusers matched on age, smoking status, and likelihood of using insulin

Cancer subtypes*No. of cancers*HR (95% CI) of A1CHR (95% CI) of insulin
Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx3
Digestive organs and peritoneum651.19 (0.95–1.51)0.19 (0.08–0.46)
    Upper digestive tract10
    Lower digestive tract25
    Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts19
Respiratory and intrathoracic organs19
Bone, connective tissue, skin, and breast19
Genitourinary organs24
Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue7
Other and unspecified sites15
Cancers other than digestive organs and peritoneum cancer871.13 (0.91–1.41)0.20 (0.10–0.41)
  • *A total of 152 cancers of any type classified by the ICD-9 were analyzed.

  • †Derived from stratified Cox models without adjusting for other covariates, but A1C and use of insulin were simultaneously entered in each of these models.