TABLE 2

Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes according to updated 4-year changes in alcohol intake stratified by initial intake (n = 38,031)

Initial alcohol consumption (g/day)Change in alcohol consumption 4 years later (g/day)Per 7.5 g/day increase
Moderate to large decrease (≥7.5)Small to moderate decrease (2.5–7.49)No change/relatively stable (± 2.49)Small to moderate increase (2.5–7.49)Moderate to large increase (≥7.5)
Non (0)
    Multivariable-adjusted*1.00 [Reference]0.84 (0.55–1.30)0.63 (0.35–1.13)0.78 (0.60–1.00)
    Person-years89,0085,1703,229
    Number of cases4482213
<1 drink/day (0.1–14.9)
    Multivariable-adjusted*1.22 (0.90–1.66)1.06 (0.89–1.26)1.00 [Reference]0.76 (0.63–0.91)0.84 (0.68–1.03)0.89 (0.83–0.96)
    Person-years7,44633,804113,71442,16226,600
    Number of cases45165534145112
≥1 drink/day (≥15.0)
    Multivariable-adjusted*1.18 (0.91–1.53)1.14 (0.83–1.56)1.00 [Reference]1.04 (0.72–1.51)0.90 (0.66–1.24)0.99 (0.95–1.02)
    Person-years33,77117,46426,78611,25018,093
    Number of cases15567944065
    Pinteraction0.004
  • Dash indicates data not available.

  • *Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards model and adjusted for age (5 categories), BMI (8 categories), physical activity (quintiles), smoking status (never, former, current 1–14 cigarettes/day, current 15–24 cigarettes/day, or current ≥25 cigarettes/day), family history of type 2 diabetes, incident and prevalent cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery, or angina), hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, dietary glycemic load (quintiles), fiber intake (quintiles), trans fat intake (quintiles), ratio of polyunsaturated fat and saturated fat (quintiles; all energy adjusted), coffee intake (quintiles), and total energy intake (continuous).

  • Pinteraction value was derived by adding an interaction term between the 7.5 g/day increment in alcohol consumption (continuous) and initial alcohol consumption (categorical) in the multivariate model.