TABLE 2

Integrated incremental or decremental glucose, insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion rates (deconvolution), glucagon, and free fatty acid concentrations after intravenous placebo, GLP-1, GIP, or GLP-1 plus GIP infusions in type 2 diabetic patients

ParameterRelation to baselinePlaceboGLP-1GIPGLP-1 plus GIPSignificance (P value)
Glucose (mmol · L−1 · min)Below−571 ± 85b−1,370 ± 151a,c−735 ± 93b−1,230 ± 140a,c<0.0001
Insulin (mU · L−1 · min)Above0.7 ± 0.313.9 ± 6.72.1 ± 0.612.6 ± 4.90.015
C-peptide (nmol · L−1 · min)Above12.9 ± 4.3b141.0 ± 35.3c54.1 ± 12.5142.9 ± 32.0ba,c<0.0001
Insulin secretion (pmol/kg body wt)Above82 ± 48367 ± 80a,c145 ± 34321 ± 71a0.002
Glucagon (pmol · L−1 · min)Below−1,111 ± 149c−1,392 ± 232c−554 ± 146b,a−871 ± 182b0.001
Nonesterified fatty acids (mmol · L−1 · min)Below−8 ± 4b−34 ± 8a,c−11 ± 3b−34 ± 8c0.0002
  • aSignificant difference (P < 0.05) to placebo.

  • bSignificant difference (P < 0.05) to GLP-1.

  • cSignificant difference (P < 0.05) to GIP.