TABLE 2

Clinical and biochemical variables in patients with acute STEMI related to circulating activin A

VariablesActivin A
(<0.23 ng/mL)Activin A
(≥0.23 ng/mL)P value
Measured in-hospital
 Age (years)54 (50, 63)62 (56, 73)0.6
 Male, n (%)49 (86.0)48 (82.8)0.0001
 Hypertension (treated), n (%)7 (12.3)16 (27.6)0.04
 Statin treatment, n (%)7 (12.3)0 (0)0.06
 Aspirin treatment, n (%)3 (30)7 (70)0.2
 ACE inhibitor/ARB treatment, n (%)4 (29)10 (72)0.08
 Current smoker, n (%)26 (45.6)23 (39.7)0.5
 BMI (kg/m2)26 (24.3, 28.7)26 (24.3, 27.8)0.96
 Comorbidity, n (%)*1 (1.8)6 (10.3)0.06
 cTnTmax (μg/L)4.7 (2.1, 8.2)6.9 (3.3, 10.8)0.10
 Cholesterol (mmol/L)5.2 (4.4, 6.0)5.2 (4.7, 5.8)0.7
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.3 (1.0, 1.7)1.2 (0.9, 1.8)0.5
 CRP (mg/L)10.7 (4.4, 27.3)17.7 (7.8, 47.6)0.047
 Creatinine (μmol/L−1)70 (60, 82)77 (66, 90)0.06
 Admission glucose (mmol/L)6.5 (5.7, 7.7)6.9 (6.4, 8.1)0.035
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.1 (4.8, 5.5)5.5 (5.0, 6.3)0.009
 Two-hour glucose (mmol/L)6.4 (5.6, 7.8)7.6 (6.5, 8.9)0.004
 HbA1c (%)5.4 (5.2, 5.5)5.6 (5.4, 5.8)0.0003
 Insulin (pM)69 (50, 86)75 (51, 110)0.3
 C-peptide (pM)788 (622, 1,029)1,034 (746, 1,212)0.01
 Proinsulin (pM)7.3 (5.0, 9.3)9.5 (5.8, 14.1)0.051
 IL-8 (pg/mL)14.9 (13.7, 17.1)15.3 (12.6, 18.3)0.84
Measured at 3 months
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)4.9 (4.6, 5.4)5.2 (4.9, 5.6)0.007
 Two-hour glucose (mmol/L)5.4 (4.4, 6.6)5.7 (4.8, 7.8)0.16
 HbA1c (%)5.5 (5.3, 5.7)5.6 (5.4, 5.9)0.007
 Insulin (pM)68 (46, 86)72 (53, 98)0.3
 C-peptide (pM)781 (603, 992)853 (685, 1,192)0.052
 Proinsulin (pM)6.3 (4.6, 8.1)6.3 (4.8, 10.2)0.5
 CRP (mg/L)2.02 (0.79, 2.96)3.27 (1.58, 5.88)0.02
 BMI (kg/m2)26.1 (24.4, 28.7)26.2 (23.8, 28.4)0.6
 Current smoker, n (%)14 (24.6)7 (12.1)0.08
 Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.2 (4.0, 4.6)4.0 (3.6, 4.6)0.06
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.2 (0.9, 1.5)1.2 (0.9, 1.5)0.7
  • Data are presented as median values (25th, 75th percentiles) or proportions. Clinical and biochemical variables in patients with acute STEMI related to high or low activin A concentrations measured within 24 h after an acute PCI (median value as cutoff point). ARB, angiotensin II receptor; cTnTmax, cTnT maximum.

  • *One patient with cancer and six patients with inflammatory diseases.