TABLE 1

Characteristics of participants: the RISC study

MenWomen
n586723
Age (years)43 (8)44 (8)
Current smoker162 (28%)179 (25%)
BMI (kg/m2)26.4 (3.5)24.8 (4.3)
Physical activity (MET-min ⋅ week−1)2,212 (960–4,657)2,133 (990–4,830)
Alcohol intake (g ⋅ week−1)74 (30–144)30 (11–65)
Waist circumference (cm)93 (10)81 (12)
Fasting glucose (mmol ⋅ L−1)5.3 (0.8)4.9 (0.6)
2-h Glycemia (mmol ⋅ L−1)5.7 (1.5)5.8 (1.5)
Fasting insulin (pmol ⋅ L−1)37.0 (20.0)33.7 (19.1)
Fasting glucagon (pmol ⋅ L−1)10 (7–12)8 (6–9)
Adiponectin (mg ⋅ L−1)5.97 (4.62–7.77)9.35 (7.17–12.18)
GGT (UI ⋅ L−1)26 (18–34)17 (12–21)
ALT (UI ⋅ L−1)22 (16–28)15 (11–18)
M/I (μmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ kg FFM−1 ⋅ [nmol ⋅ L−1]−1)111.4 (80.0–151.0)144.6 (107.2–189.6)
Hepatic insulin resistance index (pmol ⋅ L−1 ⋅ mmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ kg FFM−1)*0.38 (0.26–0.55)0.42 (0.28–0.62)
Basal insulin secretion rate (pmol/min per m2)74.2 (55.6–97.8)66.8 (52.0–86.5)
Total insulin secretion rate during OGTT (nmol/m2)39.4 (31.5–49.6)39.4 (32.2–48.4)
Endogenous clearance of insulin during OGTT (L/min per m2)1.57 (1.22–1.87)1.63 (1.30–2.00)
Hepatic insulin extraction during OGTT (dimensionless)0.61 (0.51–0.69)0.62 (0.54–0.70)
  • Data are means (SD) or median (1st–3rd quartile) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Calculated in 393 individuals.