TABLE 1

Distribution of anthropometric and biochemical parameters and monocyte gene expression data according to tertiles of insulin resistance

All subjectsInsulin resistanceP value
LowMediumHigh
Subjects (n)41131414
Sex (men/women)13/28
Age (years)36.5 ± 10.232.7 ± 10.935.1 ± 8.841.6 ± 9.5NS
BMI (kg/m2)25.00 ± 4.322.1 ± 2.425.00 ± 3.427.2 ± 3.40.001
Waist (cm)81.9 ± 11.973.3 ± 5.083.9 ± 11.093.0 ± 11.40.001
Hypertension (yes/no)6/35
NGT/IGT35/6
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)119.4 ± 13.3115.9 ± 11.1120.0 ± 15.5120.0 ± 19.1NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79.3 ± 8.475.4 ± 8.281.2 ± 8.078.6 ± 9.4NS
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.92 ± 1.074.54 ± 1.024.86 ± 0.985.32 ± 1.12NS
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.52 ± 0.401.79 ± 0.471.50 ± 0.341.30 ± 0.240.005
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.08 ± 1.082.57 ± 0.802.91 ± 1.013.72 ± 1.120.01
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.18 ± 0.770.77 ± 0.271.07 ± 0.971.66 ± 5.090.005
HbA1c (%)5.32 ± 0.275.23 ± 0.25.34 ± 0.285.49 ± 0.280.05
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.0 ± 0.45.0 ± 0.34.8 ± 0.45.1 ± 0.4NS
2 h p-l plasma glucose (mmol/L)6.6 ± 1.35.4 ± 0.96.9 ± 1.97.0 ± 1.40.01
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/L)60 ± 3544 ± 2247 ± 2289 ± 390.001
2 h p-l plasma insulin (pmol/L)325 ± 248212 ± 22267 ± 104510 ± 3920.007
HOMA IR index2.27 ± 1.421.65 ± 0.881.66 ± 0.733.46 ± 1.620.0001
Glucose disposal index (mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1)7.88 ± 2.3710.60 ± 1.417.875 ± 0.545.49 ± 1.270.0001
Fibrinogen (mg/dL)304.23 ± 81.29305.92 ± 110.41311.58 ± 68.01299.11 ± 70.47NS
C-reactive protein (mg/dL)4.18 ± 9.146.8 ± 14.262.34 ± 3.152.7 ± 2.29NS
Free fatty acids (mmol/L)0.47 ± 0.210.46 ± 0.170.38 ± 0.220.58 ± 0.13NS
sVCAM-1 (ng/mL)246.01 ± 337.75145.21 ± 163.53267.87 ± 225.82324.93 ± 518.41NS
sICAM-1 (ng/mL)166.43 ± 51.97181.25 ± 66.77152.76 ± 30.79164.24 ± 51.31NS
sTNF R1 (ng/mL)1.27 ± 0.301.28 ± 0.331.26 ± 0.131.28 ± 0.4NS
sIL6 R (ng/mL)26.98 ± 9.2725.01 ± 8.8225.57 ± 10.6130.70 ± 7.86NS
Soluble chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (ng/mL)4.11 ± 0.884.25 ± 1.054.01 ± 0.594.08 ± 0.93NS
Fractalkine (ng/mL)3.63 ± 8.984.94 ± 11.625.21 ± 10.380.73 ± 1.32NS
IMT (mm)0.70 ± 0.090.66 ± 0.090.67 ± 0.060.77 ± 0.110.008
FMD12.43 ± 6.8411.22 ± 5.2513.08 ± 8.9912.86 ± 6.71NS
Log IR0.57 ± 0.410.71 ± 0.290.49 ± 0.460.51 ± 0.44NS
Log IRS10.22 ± 0.720.36 ± 0.470.14 ± 0.940.17 ± 0.91NS
Log IRS20.09 ± 0.290.20 ± 0.280.09 ± 0.310.02 ± 0.300.05
Log TIMP3−0.12 ± 0.630.14 ± 0.55−0.22 ± 0.70−0.26 ± 0.640.05
Log TACE−0.11 ± 0.25−0.06 ± 0.25−0.17 ± 0.26−0.10 ± 0.25NS
Log ADAM100.48 ± 0.350.64 ± 0.320.33 ± 0.320.56 ± 0.29NS
Log MMP9−0.07 ± 0.30−0.07 ± 0.30−0.15 ± 0.26−0.08 ± 0.27NS
Log Sirt10.56 ± 0.350.62 ± 0.290.47 ± 0.420.62 ± 0.29NS
Log CCR2−0.06 ± 0.320.11 ± 0.29−0.12 ± 0.36−0.09 ± 0.32NS
Log TNF−0.52 ± 0.54−0.57 ± 0.57−0.94 ± 0.26−0.26 ± 0.52NS
Log LOX1−0.36 ± 0.41−0.34 ± 0.38−0.44 ± 0.42−0.32 ± 0.46NS
  • Data are percentage or means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. P value is reported for significant differences among groups tested with ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test. NGT, normal glucose tolerance; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; 2 h p-l, 2 h postglucose load; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; sIL6 R, soluble IL-6 receptor; sTNF R1, soluble TNF receptor 1.