Table 1

Staging of type 1 diabetes

Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Phenotypic characteristics• Autoimmunity• Normoglycemia• Presymptomatic• Autoimmunity• Dysglycemia• Presymptomatic• New onset• Hyperglycemia• Symptomatic
Diagnostic criteria• Multiple autoantibodies• No impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose• Multiple autoantibodies• Dysglycemia: impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance• Fasting plasma glucose 100–125 mg/dL• 2-h glasma glucose 140–199 mg/dL• HbA1c 5.7–6.4% or ≥10% increase in HbA1c• Clinical symptoms• Diabetes by standard criteria