Table 1

Characteristics of T1D in humans, dogs, NOD mice, and BB rats

HumanDog*NOD mouseBB rat
Genetic susceptibility++++
Presence of autoantibodies++/−++
Insulitis++/−++
Disease heterogeneity++
Inbred/outbredOutbredOutbred/inbredInbredInbred
Sex predilection+ (female)
Diagnosisa) Hemoglobin A1C ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol)
b) Fasting plasma glucose >126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L)
c) 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during an oral glucose tolerance test
d) Random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) with classic symptoms Confirm diagnosis by a, b, or c with repeat testingPresence of hyperglycemia (typically >250 mg/dL [13.9 mmol/L]), glucosuria, and clinical signs (normal fasting reference range: 81–118 mg/dL [4.5–6.6 mmol/L])**Blood glucose >250 mg/dL (13.9 mmol/L) on two consecutive readingsGlucosuria (4+) in combination with blood glucose >250 mg/dL (13.9 mmol/L)
Ketoacidosis common++?+
Insulin required at onset++++
  • *This table does not include congenital β-cell deficiency or insulin resistance diabetes (e.g., gestational/ progesterone or glucocorticoid induced).

  • **At the time of this writing, there is no published standard range for canines. The range reported here is from the Endocrinology Section, Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI.