Table 2

Effects of long-term residential AAP exposure on clinical fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and metabolic indices (percent differences) from a FSIVGTT in Latino children

NO2 (long-term)PM2.5 (long-term)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)0.02 (−0.2, 0.3)0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)
Fasting insulin (μU/mL)1.7 (−0.4, 3.8)2.9 (0.2, 5.6)
2-h glucose (mg/dL)0.5 (−0.1, 1.1)0.6 (−0.1, 1.4)
2-h insulin (μU/mL)2.5 (0.01, 5.1)3.1 (−0.2, 6.6)
SI (×10−4 min−1)/(μU/mL)−2.4 (−4.4, −0.3)−3.3 (−6, −0.6)
AIRg (μU/mL × 10 min)0.5 (−1.8, 2.9)2.5 (−0.6, 5.7)
DI−2.3 (−4.2, −0.3)−1.1 (−3.8, 1.6)
  • All outcomes were transformed using the natural log. Results are displayed as the estimated percent difference with 95% CIs for the effects of long-term exposure on the percent difference in the yearly rate of change (growth) of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin, SI, AIRg, and DI. Each model was adjusted for sex, Tanner stage, season of testing (warm/cold), prior year exposure at each follow-up visit, social position, body fat percent, study wave, and study entry year.

  • Bold font indicates results that were statistically significant based on a two-sided P < 0.05.