Table 2

Fasting plasma biochemistry values of study subjects at the screening visit and before and after cold exposure

Fasting biochemistryNormal rangeLeanOverweight
ScreeningBefore coolingAfter coolingScreeningBefore coolingAfter cooling
Glucose (mmol/L)4–65.0 ± 0.65.2 ± 0.55.2 ± 0.55.5 ± 0.55.6 ± 0.45.3 ± 0.3
Insulin (mU/L)6.1 ± 2.45.7 ± 1.74.2 ± 1.812.9 ± 5.8##13.4 ± 9.811.3 ± 6.1
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)4–6 (20–42)5.0 ± 0.3 (31.1 ± 3.0)5.1 ± 0.3 (31.7 ± 2.6)
Cholesterol (mmol/L)<5.04.2 ± 0.74.7 ± 1.2
HDL (mmol/L)>1.01.5 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.2#
LDL (mmol/L)<3.02.3 ± 0.73.1 ± 1.0
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (mU/L)0.3–4.21.8 ± 0.81.6 ± 0.91.4 ± 0.71.8 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.61.2 ± 0.5**
Triiodothyronine (pmol/L)3.1–6.84.8 ± 0.44.9 ± 0.65.2 ± 0.65.4 ± 0.6#5.2 ± 0.85.1 ± 0.7
Thyroxine (pmol/L)11–2216.1 ± 2.315.9 ± 2.316.4 ± 2.1*15.2 ± 1.715.1 ± 1.815.6 ± 1.5
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.45–2.60.7 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.30.8 ± 0.3**1.0 ± 0.61.0 ± 0.61.1 ± 0.6*
Free fatty acids (mmol/L)0.4 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.1**0.5 ± 0.20.5 ± 0.2
Lactate (mmol/L)0.6–2.40.8 ± 0.11.1 ± 0.5*0.9 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.5
NA (nmol/L)0.59–3.552.4 ± 1.06.4 ± 2.6***2.6 ± 0.75.1 ± 1.9**
Energy expenditure (kcal/day)1,664 ± 1951,907 ± 293*2,107 ± 2022,305 ± 207*
  • Data are the mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated.

  • #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01, independent t test comparing screening values of lean and overweight subjects.

  • *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P = 0.001, paired t test comparing values within group before and after cold exposure.