Table 1

Summary of findings from NHP cohorts studying the effects of maternal WSD and obesity on third-trimester fetuses and juvenile offspring

FindingsFirst author, year (ref.)
Placenta
 Increased cytokine production and decreased function; reduced uterine volume blood flowFrias, 2011 (145)
 Reduced mRNA expression of AMPKα, plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, and fatty acid  transporterO’Tierney-Ginn, 2015 (146)
Plasma
 Increased n-6:n-3 ratio in fetal plasma; increased fetal hepatic apoptosis; lower levels of EPA and  DHA in breast milkGrant, 2011 (34)
 Impact of maternal diet on the fetal metabolomeCox, 2009 (147)
Maternal diet
 WSD and genomic variants resistant to weight gainHarris, 2016 (148)
 Impact of maternal resveratrol supplementation on placenta and fetal outcomesRoberts, 2014 (149)
Microbiome
 Maternal gut microbial dysbiosis and diminished abundance of Campylobacter in juveniles switched  to healthy diet at weaningMa, 2014 (44)
 Modulations in the offspring gut microbiome refractory to postnatal symbiotic supplementation  among juvenilesPace, 2018 (150)
Liver
 Increased fetal hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and triglyceride accumulationMcCurdy, 2009 (32)
 Altered fetal chromatin structure and disrupted H3 acetylationAagaard-Tillery, 2008 (33)
 Disruption of circadian gene expression in fetal and juvenile liverSuter, 2011 (151)
 Decreased fetal SIRT1 histone and protein deacetylase activitySuter, 2012 (152)
 Decreased juvenile hepatic innervation; increased apoptosis and inflammationGrant, 2012 (153)
 Increased inflammation, triglycerides, and de novo lipid synthesis; dysregulated juvenile hepatic  immune systemThorn, 2014 (43)
Skeletal muscle/vascular function
 Fetal mitochondrial dysfunction and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscleMcCurdy, 2016 (56)
 Endothelial dysfunction, elevated expression levels of vascular inflammation, and fibrinolytic function  in juvenile aortaFan, 2013 (154)
Pancreas
 Reduced fetal/juvenile α-cell mass and increased β-cell:α-cell ratioComstock, 2012 (52)
 Increased inflammatory cytokines and islet-associated macrophagesNicol, 2013 (155)
 Reduced fetal/juvenile islet vascularization and impaired sympathetic islet innervationPound, 2014 (54)
Brain
 Abnormalities in the fetal melanocortin systemGrayson, 2010 (60)
 Perturbations in the fetal serotonergic system; increased anxiety (female infants) and increase  aggression (male infants)Sullivan, 2010 (156)
 Overconsumption of palatable energy-dense diet in juveniles; reduced dopamine signaling in juvenilesRivera, 2015 (59)
 Altered peripheral and central serotonergic system and persistent anxiety and aggressive behaviorsAagaard, 2016 (157)
 Increased anxiety in juveniles; modified cortisol stress response and decreased serotonergic  immunoreactivityThompson, 2017 (57)
 Disturbances in body weight regulation; impairments in central melanocortin signalingSullivan, 2017 (158)
  • DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid.