Diabetes Instructions for Authors
Last updated on November 22, 2013.

Download these instructions in PDF format.

Beginning with manuscripts submitted after Jan. 1, 2013, Diabetes requires authors to report HbA1c levels in both traditional, DCCT-derived units (as %) and SI, IFCC-recommended units (as mmol/mol). Authors should use the NGSP converter for HbA1c, available at http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp, to calculate HbA1c values as both % and mmol/mol. (Please note the additional link available for converting standard deviations.) Values should first be reported as %, followed by the mmol/mol equivalent in parentheses.

About the Journal
Editorial Office Contact Info
Editorial Policies
Manuscript Format
Manuscript Style
Manuscript Submission Tips
Accepted Manuscripts
Financial Obligations

Diabetes takes only online manuscript submissions. The submission site can be found at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/diabetes. Please read all instructions carefully. Failure to follow the submission instructions may delay the review process.


Diabetes publishes original research about the physiology and pathophysiology of diabetes. Submitted manuscripts can report any aspect of laboratory, animal, or human research. Emphasis is on investigative reports focusing on areas such as the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, normal and pathological pancreatic islet function and intermediary metabolism, pharmacological mechanisms of drug and hormone action, and biochemical and molecular aspects of normal and abnormal biological processes. Studies in the areas of diabetes education or the application of accepted therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to patients with diabetes are not published.

Only material that has not been published previously (either in print or electronically) and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, with the exception of an abstract that is less than 400 words in length, will be considered for publication. Prior presentation of data (e.g., at a scientific meeting or via webcast) does not preclude publication in Diabetes, but should be disclosed in the Acknowledgments of the paper and in the author's comments to the editor upon manuscript submission. All submissions to the journal will be scanned for possible duplicate or prior publication using the CrossCheck/iThenticate plagiarism detection system (www.ithenticate.com/). Any article that eclipses a certain similarity threshold with another article will be closely reviewed by ADA. Authors who submit previously published work to the journal will be banned from submitting future manuscripts to the journal, and their funding body and/or institution will be notified.

All contributions, including solicited Perspectives on Diabetes, are critically reviewed by the editors and, if felt to be appropriate for the journal and potentially competitive, invited referees. Reviewers' comments, when available, are provided to authors. The exception are commentaries, all of which are by invitation only and reviewed only by the invited editor. The decision of the editors is final. Authors are welcome to suggest the names of individuals they consider qualified to serve as reviewers.

All human investigation must be conducted according to the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. All studies involving animals must state that guidelines for the use and care of laboratory animals of the authors' institution or the National Research Council or any national law were followed.

Data Access and Responsibility. For all reports (regardless of funding source) containing original data, at least one named author (e.g., the principal investigator) who is independent of any commercial funder or sponsor must indicate that he or she is the "guarantor" of the study (i.e., he or she had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis). A statement identifying the guarantor should be included in the Acknowledgments section at the end of the manuscript. Modified statements or generic statements indicating that all authors had such access are not acceptable.

The statement should appear as follows: C.K. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

For industry-sponsored studies, the editors reserve the right ot request an analysis of the data (based on the entire raw data set and evaluation of the study protocol, and prespecified plan for data analysis) by an independent statistician at an academic institution, rather than by statisticians employed by the sponsor or by a commercial contract research organization.In such cases, the independent biostatistician must be a faculty member at a medical school or academic medical center, or an employee of a government research institute, that has oversight over the person conducting the analysis and that is independent of the commercial sponsor. Details of this independent statistical analysis, the name and institutional affiliation of the independent statistician, and whether compensation or funding was received for conducting the analyses should be reported in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. The results of this independent statistical analysis should be the results reported in the manuscript.

Each Original Article and Brief Report will be assigned to a category in the table of contents. The category assignment is made by the editors, but authors are required to suggest a category when submitting their manuscript.

To make research readily available to subscribers, Diabetes publishes accepted articles online ahead of print weeks before the print/online issue becomes available. These articles have been copyedited, proofread, and typeset but not yet author-approved or finalized and will appear in a future issue of Diabetes in print and online.

Online Ahead of Print articles are citable by unique DOI (digital object identifier). DOIs for Diabetes articles begin with 10.2337, followed by the article number assigned when the manuscript was submitted online via the manuscript submission system. (e.g., 10.2337/db11-1234)

Example: Kohler C, Norton H, Farber K, Briggs E: How to cite a prepublished article in ADA journals. Diabetes 10.2337/db11-1234

As a courtesy to authors, the final print versions of articles funded by NIH will be deposited in PubMed Central (PMC) at no additional cost. In compliance with NIH’s policy, these articles will appear on PMC 12 months after print publication in Diabetes Care. All articles, regardless of funding body, are delivered to PubMed for inclusion in the PubMed index. 

Full-text HTML versions of all articles are freely accessible on Diabetes Care Online (care.diabetesjournals.org) 6 months after the print publication date, and PDF content becomes freely accessible 12 months after the print publication date.


Diabetes Journal Editorial Office
American Diabetes Association
5110 Commerce Square Dr, Suite G
Indianapolis, IN 46237
Phone: (317) 354-1508
Fax: (317) 859-3592
E-mail: diabetesjournal{at}diabetes.org

Lyn Reynolds, Director, Editorial Office
Jane Lucas, Peer Review Manager
Joan Garrett, Editorial Secretary

The editor-in-chief of Diabetes, K. Sreekumaran Nair, MD, PhD, began his term with the January 2012 issue. Dr. Nair's editorial team began reviewing first submissions on July 1, 2011.


ADA's Publications Policy Committee follows the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for guidance on policies and procedures related to publication ethics. The policies for Diabetes have been adopted from those three advisory bodies and, where necessary, modified and tailored to meet the specific content, audiences, and aims of Diabetes. Comprehensive information related to the editorial and ethical policies of Diabetes can be found in Publication Policies and Procedures for Diabetes. The Association's Publications Policy Committee or Subcommittee on Ethical Scientific Publications will consider on a case-by-case basis policies that are not addressed in the policies document, which contains information related to the following topics:

  • Study Design
  • Originality and Prior Publication
  • Authorship and Contributions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Clinical Trials, Systematic Reviews, and Meta-Analyses
  • Plagiarism
  • Digital Image Manipulation
  • Responses to Possible Scientific Misconduct
  • Peer Review
  • Editorial Decisions
  • Prepublication of Accepted Articles
  • Reuse, Post-Prints, and Public Access
  • Errata
  • Media Embargos
  • Advertising
  • Supplements

Manuscript Submission Form

A manuscript submission form must be completed for each article submitted. The form addresses ADA's policies on 1) originality and authorship, 2) copyright assignment, and 3) potential conflict of interest. The corresponding author should read the three sections, check the appropriate boxes, sign the document where indicated, and upload the completed form to the manuscript submission system upon article submission. ADA will accept ICMJE's Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest.

Submissions will not be considered complete until the manusript submission form has been uploaded/received.

If your manuscript contains color figures, see the information below on submitting the color approval form.

Statement of Originality and Authorship

Diabetes subscribes to the requirements stated in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals that authorship implies substantial contributions to conception and design or analysis and interpretation of data and drafting of the article or critical revision for important intellectual content. The editor reserves the right to query authorship contribution.

Copyright Assignment

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) holds the copyright on all material appearing in Diabetes. All authors must check the appropriate boxes and sign the manuscript submission form, which transfers copyright to the ADA in accordance with the Copyright Revision Act of 1976.

Reuse and Post-Prints

ADA's manuscript submission form addresses permission policies related to reuse and post-prints. Please see below for the statement of provenance and other conditions:

Reuse. Authors are permitted to reuse portions of their ADA-copyrighted work, including tables and figures, in their own work, and to reuse portions or all of their ADA-copyrighted work for educational purposes, without submitting a request to ADA, provided that the proper citation and copyright information is given.

Post-prints. Authors are permitted to submit the final, accepted version of their manuscript to their funding body or institution for inclusion in their funding body or institution's database, archive, or repository, or to post the final, accepted version on their personal Web site. These manuscripts may be made freely accessible to the public upon acceptance, provided that the following two conditions are observed:

First, post-prints must include the following statement of provenance and, once the final version has been published in the journal, a link to the final published version of the paper on the journal's Web site:

This is an author-created, uncopyedited electronic version of an article accepted for publication in Diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA), publisher of Diabetes, is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it by third parties. The definitive publisher-authenticated version will be available in a future issue of Diabetes in print and online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org.

Second, the version of the manuscript deposited or posted must be identical to the final accepted version, with the exception of the addition of the above statement and any changes necessary to correct errors. Authors may make changes to the posted version to correct mistakes or may issue an erratum at any time. However, the final published version of the manuscript may not be deposited, posted, or later substituted for the post-print.

Duality of Interest

All authors must read the ADA Policy Statement on Duality of Interest and check the appropriate box on the manuscript submission form, which can be found online and in every issue of Diabetes. Any author who has duality of interest to disclose must attach an additional statement that explains the nature of the duality or conflict of interest. Relevant duality or conflict of interest (or lack thereof) should also be disclosed in the authors'comments to the editor during the submission process.

Author Contributions: As of March 1, 2010, authors are required to include a paragraph in the Acknowledgments section listing each author's contribution. Example: "C.K. researched data. L.R. wrote the manuscript and researched data. H.N. reviewed/edited the manuscript. V.S. contributed to discussion and reviewed/edited manuscript. N.B. researched data and contributed to discussion. V.G. wrote the manuscript."

In addition, when authors cite the "editorial assistance" of a colleague, or help provided by a colleague "with preparing the manuscript," authors are required to list the employer/institution with which that colleague is affiliated. Example: "The authors acknowledge the editorial assistance of Mark Smith, Global Informatics, Inc., etc."; "The authors thank Mark Smith, Global Informatics, Inc,. for help with preparing the manuscript."

Color Figures

The cost of printing in color, to be borne by the author, is $475 U.S. per color figure. Color fees are based on individual figures as a whole, not by the part, i.e., A, B, C, etc. The corresponding author will receive via e-mail an invoice, as well as a reprint order form, when page proofs become available. Unless otherwise indicated, the corresponding author is to assume responsibility for payment.

Clinical Trials

As of 1 January 2006, all clinical trials submitted to Diabetes for consideration of publication must be registered. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) defines a clinical trial as "any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials), are exempt."

For definitions and further information, please see the section titled Obligation to Register Clinical Trials found in ICMJE's Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Please note, however, that unlike ICMJE, ADA does not require trials to be registered before enrollment begins, although Diabetes does encourage this practice. When submitting your manuscript, please include the unique trial number and the name of the registry (e.g., ClinicalTrials.gov or ISRCTN) at the end of the abstract and in your cover letter.

Registries must be approved by ICJME. Approved registries include ClinicalTrials.gov, www.ISRCTN.org, www.actr.org.au, www.umin.ac.jp, and www.trialregister.nl


Articles must be in clear and understandable English. Non-native English authors are encouraged to seek the assistance of an English-proficient colleague, or a communications agency such as “American Journal Experts”, to help improve the clarity and readability of a paper before it is submitted to the journal.

Every manuscript must have an accompanying title page. In addition to the full title, the title page should include a short running title (less than 47 characters and spaces); the first name, middle initial, and last name of each author; the affiliation (in English) of each author during the study being reported; the name, current address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author; and the word count and number of tables and figures. The text on the title page should be center aligned.

The main text and tables must be saved in Microsoft Word document format, with 12 pt Times New Roman font, and the main text should double spaced with justified margins.

Please do not use headers, footers, or endnotes in your paper.

Original Articles

Original Articles are expected to present a significant advance in diabetes research and should be arranged in the following order: title page, abstract (see below), introduction (no heading necessary), "Research Design and Methods," Results," "Discussion," "Acknowledgments," "References," tables (each including a title and legend), figure legends, and figures.

  • An abstract is required for all Original Articles. The abstract should be unstructured, concise and precise and should convey the essential findings of the manuscript. The abstract may not exceed 200 words. It should state the rationale, objectives, findings, and conclusions of the manuscript. References, primary data, and statistical significance should not be presented in the abstract, and nonstandard abbreviations must be defined. Authors are encouraged to include a statement that describes the potential translational impact of the study results.
  • The word limit for the main text of Original Articles is 4,000 words. (The total word count excludes the title page, abstract, acknowledgments, references, tables and figures, and table/figure legends.) The main text should be double spaced with justified margins.
  • The article should contain no more than 50 references and the reference section should be single spaced with justified margins.
  • The article should contain no more than a combination of eight tables and/or figures.
  • Supporting documents/data can be uploaded for review purposes and will not be published. (When uploading, be sure each file is clearly labeled "supporting document/data.") Although an option for Online Supplemental Material is available, authors must provide a statement of justification as to why it is important for submission and publication if eventually accepted. Only files designated as "Online Supplemental Data" files and approved by the Editorial Committee will be published online only.

Please see the corresponding sections below for information on acknowledgments, references, tables, and figures.

Brief Reports

The Brief Report category can be used for any original research pertinent to the journal. The purpose of the category is to permit publication of very important, high-quality mechanistic studies that can be concisely presented. Brief Reports should be formatted in the following manner:

  • An abstract is required for all Brief Reports. (Please follow the formatting guidelines listed under Original Articles.)
  • The word limit for the main text of Brief Reports is 2,000 words. (The total word count excludes the title page, abstract, acknowledgments, references, tables and figures, and table/figure legends.)
  • The report should contain no more than 25 references and the reference section should be single spaced with justified margins.
  • The article should contain no more than a combination of four tables and/or figures.
  • Supporting documents/data can be uploaded for review purposes and will not be published. (When uploading, be sure each file is clearly labeled "supporting document/data.")

Please see the corresponding sections below for information on acknowledgments, references, tables, and figures, and online supplemental material.

Review Articles

Review articles are comprehensive, critical reviews of research topics and/or methodological approaches that are highly relevant to investigators in the field of diabetes research. The review should be interpretative rather than a summary that describes various approaches that are available as well as their relative merits, limitations and specific applicaitons.

Authors are encouraged to discuss and relate the review to the current state of the literature and current methodological practices.

Reviews are by invitation or approved submission after query by authors(s).

By invitation: Editorial Staff will invite qualified person(s) to write a review article on selected topics.

By author query: Before a Review Article can be submitted for peer review and possible publicaiton, a proposal and outline of the article must be submitted to, and approved by, the Editors. For complete details on Review Article proposals please contact lreynolds{at}diabetes.org.


Commentaries are brief articles presenting the authors' views on a topic of current interest. Commentaries (and Editorials) are by invitation only.

Manuscript Submission Tip: To bypass the Abstract field when submitting a Commentary, type None in the Abstract field. For more tips on uploading your manuscript, see the Manuscript Submission Tips section.

Online Letters to the Editor

Online Letters to the Editor are intended to provide an opportunity to comment on articles published within the previous three months in Diabetes. Online Letters to the Editor are not intended as a platform for presenting unpublished data, research, or observations.

While Online Letters are only published online, they are listed in the table of contents of the print version, and will be assigned an "E" page number. Citations for Online Letters should include the letter's unique DOI (digital object identifier) number, which is available in the footnote section of each letter (e.g., 10.2337/db08-XXXX).

  • Letters do not have abstracts and should not exceed 500 words, including the references. The inclusion of tables or figures in letters is discouraged. As with all submissions, letters should be double-spaced with 12 pt. Times New Roman font and justified margins.
  • Letters must include a title page with the authors' full names and affiliations and the corresponding author's contact information.
  • For comments on or responses to another article or letter, the article or letter on which the letter comments or responds to should be included as reference 1 in the reference list. The editor reserves the right to ask authors of the cited article to respond.

Manuscript Submission Tip: To bypass the "Abstract" field when submitting a Letter to the Editor, type "None" in the "Abstract" field. For more tips on uploading your manuscript, see the Manuscript Submission Tips section.

Perspectives in Diabetes

Perspectives in Diabetes are invited by the Editorial Board or submitted independently. Perspectives may highlight recent exciting research, not primarily that of the author(s), and may provide context for the findings within a field or explain potential interdisciplinary significance. Perspectives commenting on papers in Diabetes should add a dimension to the research and not merely be a summary of the experiments presented in the paper.

The formatting requirements for Perspectives in Diabetes are similar to those for Original Articles.

  • An abstract is required for Perspectives articles. The abstract should be an unstructured, concise synopsis and may not exceed 200 words. References, primary data, and statistical significance should not be presented in the abstract, and nonstandard abbreviations must be defined.
  • The word limit for the main text is 4,000 words and 50 references. (The total word count excludes the title page, abstract, acknowledgments, references, tables and figures, and table/figure legends.) The main text should be double spaced with justified margins.
  • Perspectives may include a combination of no more than eight tables and/or figures.

Please see the corresponding sections below for information on acknowledgments, references, tables, and figures.

Author Contributions paragraph

This paragraph should list each author's contributions as shown on the manuscript submission forms and should be placed in the Acknowledgments.


The acknowledgments are located after the main text and before the reference list. Acknowledgments should contain the author contributions paragraph, brief statements of assistance, the guarantor's name (person or persons taking responsibility for the contents of the article), funding/financial support, and reference to prior publication of the study in abstract form, where applicable.

Supplemental Data (Online Supplemental Material)

If you upload supplemental material intended for publishing online-only it should be labeled as an "Online Supplemental Materials" file. If you upload supporting data intended for review purposes only it should be uploaded as "Supporting Data or Supporting Document". Files uploaded as supporting data/supporting document will not be published in print or online if the paper is accepted.

Supplemental data intended as online-only supplemental material should contain only supplemental information that is in addition to the main document (additional writing group members/investigator lists, supplemental tables and/or figures, short videos, etc.). It should not be excessively long. Whenever possible, all online supplemental material should be included in one Microsoft Word document file, or otherwise uploaded in its original format.

Note: If you have online-only supplemental material, you must include justification on the necessity of the online supplement. The main document must contain all relevant material. Sections (i.e., Research Design and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions), or portions thereof, cannot be moved to online-only to accommodate word limits in the main document. Each section must be complete, without exception.


The reference list should go at the end of the document, after the main text and acknowledgments (if applicable) and before the tables. References should be numbered in the order that they are cited in the text.

Reference numbers in the text should be in normal type and in parentheses [e.g., "In the study by Norton et al. (23)..."]. Please do not use the footnote/endnote functions found in some word processing programs. Reference software is permissible (e.g., EndNotes). Reference lists should be single spaced (no space between citations), and the margins should be justified.

For examples of how to style various citations in the reference list, see "References" in the Manuscript Style section.


Tables should be double-spaced on separate pages and included at the end of the text document, with the table number and title indicated. Tables should be created using Word and the "Insert Table" command; please do not use tabs and/or spaces to create tables, columns, or rows. Tables with internal divisions (Tables 1A and B) should be submitted as individual tables, i.e., Tables 1 and 2. Symbols for units should be confined to column headings. Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and defined in the table legend. Please avoid the use of shading. If a table includes data that require explanation in the legend, apply the following symbol sequence, from top to bottom, left to right: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, #, **, ††, ‡‡, etc.

If tables are taken from other sources, it should be noted in the legend, and the author must be able to provide written permission for reproduction obtained from the original publisher and author.


Diabetes uses digital publishing methods throughout the journal production process. If your article is accepted, it will be published both in the printed journal and online. The following sections provide information on how to format your figures to ensure the best possible reproduction of your images.

Size. Figures should be produced at the size they are to appear in the printed journal. Please make sure your figures will fit in one or two columns in width. Multi-paneled figures should be assembled in a layout that leaves the least amount of blank space.

1 column = 21 picas wide, 3.5 in, 8.9 cm
2 columns = 43 picas wide, 7.1 in, 18 cm

Font. At 100% size, fonts should be 8-10 points and used consistently throughout all figures.

Text. Information on the axes should be succinct, using abbreviations where possible, and the label on the y-axis should read vertically, not horizontally. Key information should be placed in any available white space within the figure; if space is not available, the information should be placed in the legend. In general, figures with multiple parts should be marked A, B, C, etc., with a description of each panel included in the legend rather than on the figure.

Line and bar graphs. Lines in graphs should be bold enough to be easily read after reduction, as should all symbols used in the figure. Data points are best marked with the following symbols, again assuring that they will be readily distinguishable after reduction: . In the figure legend, please use words rather than the symbols; e.g., "black circles = group 1; white squares = group 2; black bars = blood glucose; white bars = C-peptide." Bars should be black or white only, unless more than two datasets are being presented; additional bars should be drawn with clear bold hatch marks or stripes, not shades of gray.

Line or bar graphs or flow charts with text should be created in black and white, not shades of gray, which are difficult to reproduce in even tones.

Reproductions. If materials (e.g., figures and/or tables) are taken from other sources, it should be noted in the legend, and the author must be able to provide written permission for reproduction obtained from the original publisher and author. For more information, refer to Permissions: Help for Authors.

Figure legends. Figure legends should be clearly numbered and included at the very end of your document and should not be included on the separate figure/image files. Please use words to describe symbols used in the figure; e.g., "black circles = group 1; white squares = group 2; black bars = blood glucose; white bars = C-peptide."

Formatting digital figure files for print and online reproduction. To meet ADA's quality standards for publication, it is important to submit digital art that conforms to the appropriate resolution, size, color mode, and file format. Doing so will help to avoid delays in publication and maximize the quality of images, both online and in print. Please refer to ADA's Digital Art Guidelines when preparing your files. If you are unable to provide files that meet the specifications oulined in the Guidelines, you may submit your origial source files (files from the program in which they were originally created).

The Diabetes Editorial Office can properly convert digital figure files as a courtesy for authors who are unable to provide files that meet the specifications. To facilitate this process, please indicate the type of software application(s) used to generate the figure in the form of an e-mail to the Editorial Office (address below) and make sure original source files (the initial images created by the original software application) are either uploaded to the submission site or e-mailed to the Editorial Office (diabetesjournal{at}diabetes.org. If figure files are too large to upload or e-mail, please either upload them on a free web server (http://www.yousendit.com/).

It is strongly recommended that authors converting their own digital files also send the original source files (what the figures were created in and saved in that program format) to the Diabetes Editorial Office in the event that the converted files are not acceptable for publication for any reason. Unacceptable files include those of poor quality due to improper conversion and/or incorrect resolution (dpi) and/or the use of too many software applications in the creation of the file.

Digital image manipulation. The American Diabetes Association has adopted the statement developed by the Journal of Cell Biology as its policy on the manipulation of digital images:

“No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (i.e., using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including backgrounds. Without any background information, it is not possible to see exactly how much of the original gel is actually shown. Non-linear adjustments (e.g., changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.”

All digital images in manuscripts accepted for publication will be scanned using image forensics software for any indication of improper manipulation. Cases of questionable or inappropriate image alterations will be referred to the Association’s Subcommittee on Ethical Scientific Publications (ESP). The ESP may request the original data from the authors for comparison to the prepared figures. If the authors fail to provide the original data, the acceptance of the manuscript will be revoked. Cases of deliberate misrepresentation of data will result in revocation of acceptance, and will be reported to the corresponding author's home institution and/or funding agency as appropriate.

For examples of what constitutes improper digital manipulation (as well as other forms of scientific misconduct), ADA encourages authors to refer to the 2006 editorial by the Journal of Clinical Investigation titled “Stop Misbehaving!” In addition, authors are encouraged to refer to Adobe’s white paper on using Photoshop CS3 Extended in biomedical imaging. The paper provides useful information on maintaining image integrity, editing nondestructively, and the medical and scientific image workflow.

Manuscript Submission Tip: Figures are to be uploaded individually as separate files. They should be in their original source format (what they were created in) if you are unable to convert figures properly. For more tips, please see the Manuscript Submission Tips section.


Videos can now be published in the online article, with a still image from the video appearing in the PDF and the print version. Still images are encouraged, but not required, and should represent as best as possible the main subject of the video. Video files should be clearly labeled as "video 1," "video 2," etc., and still images should be named "video 1 still image," etc. Each video must be cited in the text, and a legend must accompany each video. Video legends should include labels that correspond with the in-text citation and should be placed after the figure legends in the manuscript.

Videos can also be submitted as supplementary data and should be labeled "online supplemental video 1," etc. Supplementary videos are not required to have legends. 

Most video formats are acceptable, including .avi, .flv, .mov, .mp4, .swf, .wav, .wma, .wmv, and more. For helpful information about creating videos, please visit the Video Creation Guide.

Cover Art

Authors are invited to submit images for use on the cover of Diabetes. Black and white or color photographic or photomicrographic images are acceptable. Examples of recent covers can be found on the Diabetes archive page. Cover image submission and selection is completely independent of article submission and the peer-review process. Images sent for consideration on the cover are not required to be related to an article submitted to or published in the journal. The author must own copyright to the image and, if chosen, must grant ADA unrestricted free use of the image to be published on the cover of the journal as well as in other ADA publications and marketing materials. If your image is selected, you must be able to provide the file in TIFF or EPS format, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi and no larger than 2MB.

Cover image submissions should be sent to productionmanager@diabetes.org with a brief caption and complete credit information (e.g., photograph courtesy of...). Please limit inquiries regarding the status of your cover image submission. You will be notified in a timely manner if your image has been selected to appear on a cover of Diabetes.


Terminology and Style

Articles should be written in clear, concise English following the recommendations for scientific writing found in Scientific Style and Format, the Council of Science Editors (CSE) style manual (7th ed., 2006, Reston, VA, Council of Science Editors). All accepted manuscripts will be edited according to the CSE style manual and The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed., 2003, Chicago, IL, The University of Chicago Press) by ADA professional publications staff. The authors are responsible for all statements made in their articles or editorials, including any editing changes made by staff.

The designations type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes should be used when referring to the two major forms of diabetes. Abbreviations for diabetes, such as T2D for type 2 diabetes, should not be used. The term diabetic should not be used as a noun.


Abbreviations should be used only when necessary, e.g., for long chemical names (HEPES), procedures (ELISA), or terms used throughout the article. See the list of abbreviations that need not be defined; all others must be defined at first use. Abbreviate units of measure only when used with numbers. Abbreviations may be used in tables and figures. The CSE style manual contains lists of standard scientific abbreviations.


Clinical laboratory values should be in Système International (SI) form. Kilocalories should be used rather than kilojoules. HbA1c values should be dually reported as “% (mmol/mol).” Please use the NGSP’s HbA1c converter at http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp to calculate HbA1c values as both % and mmol/mol.


Authors should provide the name and location (city and state/country) of the source for specified chemicals and other materials only if alternate sources are considered unsatisfactory.


References should be listed according to the following examples and should be numbered in the order that they are cited in the text. All authors must be listed and inclusive page numbers provided. Journal titles should be abbreviated as in the National Library of Medicine's List of Journals Indexed for Medline; for unlisted journals, complete journal titles should be provided. Material that is in press may be cited, but copies of such material may be requested. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.

When citing the prepublished version of a Diabetes article, please use the DOI (digital object identifier) in place of volume, page range, and year (see below for an example). The DOI of a Diabetes article will begin with 10.2337, followed by an article number (assigned at submission via the online manuscript submission system) (e.g., 10.2337/db08-XXXX).

Example: Kohler C, Norton N, Farber K, Briggs E: How to cite a prepublished article in ADA journals. Diabetes 10.2337/db08-9999

Scientific Sessions abstracts from 2003 to present can be found using the link provided at the bottom of the Diabetes archive page (http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml).


  • Your manuscript should be submitted under the name of the designated corresponding author's user account (the contact person listed on the title page of the manuscript); the corresponding author is the only author who will receive notification of proof availability. (The system automatically recognizes the user account as the corresponding author, even if another name is designated.)
  • Be sure to review the proofs of your submitted files after uploading them.
  • To bypass the "Abstract" field when submitting a Letter to the Editor or a Commentary, type "None" in the "Abstract" field, and when submitting a Perspectives, paste the introduction into the "Abstract" field.
  • Use simple file names when saving your documents, and do not use special characters such as [brackets], (parentheses), punctuation marks (?, !, .), or symbols (@, #, &, etc.). In addition, avoid spaces in files names, e.g., use "Figure1.tif" rather than "Figure 1.tiff."
  • Do not upload .pdf files, Excel files, or zipped files (unless you are uploading original source files of figures). You may, however, upload .pdf copies of the signed manuscript submission form, which can be found in the Editorial Policies section and must be provided for all manuscript submissions.
  • The text of your manuscript should be prepared using a word processing program and saved as a .doc, .txt, or a .rtf file.
  • When uploading each file, you will be asked to choose a designation from a pull-down menu that describes the content of the file (e.g., "Main Document," "Figure," "Table," etc.). In addition to this designation, please ensure that the name of each file clearly describes the content of the file (e.g., "figure1.tiff," "table2.doc," "coverletter.rtf," etc.).


In addition to following the above listed guidelines for submission:

  • When submitting a revised manuscript, all changes should be indicated with red font and underlined. Deletions need not be indicated within the article itself but should be noted in the author responses to reviewers.
  • If the "track changes" function of a word processing program is used to show additions and deletions, make sure that all changes are "accepted" before submitting the clean revised version. Once the changes are accepted, deactivate the track changes function before saving and uploading the file.
  • Please provide both a marked version showing corrections and a "clean" final version.
  • Do not "lock" or "page protect" documents.
  • Please adhere to word count, table, and figure limits as previously instructed.

Failure to follow instructions may result in publication delays if your manuscript is accepted.


Accepted manuscripts will be scheduled for publication as soon as possible.

Correspondence concerning the copyediting and proofreading of accepted manuscripts should be addressed to Nancy Baldino, Editorial Manager, Diabetes, American Diabetes Association, 1701 North Beauregard St., Alexandria, VA 22311; tel.: (703) 549-1500, ext. 1748; fax: (703) 253-4870; e-mail: vsuch{at}diabetes.org.

Correspondence concerning the production of accepted articles should be addressed to Amy Gavin, Production Editor, American Diabetes Association, 1701 North Beauregard St., Alexandria, VA 22311; e-mail: agavin{at}diabetes.org.

The designated corresponding author will receive notification of availability of page proofs by e-mail. Corrections should be returned within 24 hours of receipt of the proof. Failure to do so may delay the publication of the article to another issue. If an extension is required, please contact either Nancy or Amy at the addresses/phone numbers above.


Page charges are assessed for Original Articles and Brief Reports to help defray costs of publication. The charge is $90 per page. In addition, each color figure printed will incur a charge of $475. (Note: Charges apply to each figure as a whole, not by the part, i.e., A, B, C, etc.). The corresponding author will receive via e-mail an invoice, as well as a reprint order form, when page proofs become available. Unless otherwise indicated, the corresponding author is to assume responsibility for payment.