Table 3

Summary of multivariable logistic regressions of AGE associations with the prevalence of retinopathy without and with adjustment for A1C, and vice versa

Covariate effects evaluated*dfχ2P valueEntropy R2OR
(95% CI)
All AGEs (FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen, pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H1, GSPNE)
 Unadjusted1053.7<0.00010.19
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C1027.30.0020.10
  EDIC study mean A1C1046.2<0.00010.16
Original AGEs published in 2005 (FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen, pepsin-soluble collagen)
 Unadjusted642.4<0.00010.15
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C616.30.010.06
  EDIC study mean A1C633.9<0.00010.12
Backward selected all AGEs (FUR, GSPNE)
 Unadjusted245.5<0.00010.16
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C217.10.00020.06
  EDIC study mean A1C232.9<0.00010.12
  CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen,  pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H1230.5<0.00010.11
  Selected factors214.50.00060.06
FUR
 Unadjusted137.4<0.00010.132.6 (1.8–3.6)
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C19.80.0020.032.0 (1.3–3.2)
  EDIC study mean A1C125.1<0.00010.092.5 (1.6–3.2)
  Selected factors15.90.010.032.5 (1.3–4.0)
GSPNE
 Unadjusted131.8<0.00010.112.4 (1.7–3.4)
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C112.20.00050.042.0 (1.4–2.9)
  EDIC study mean A1C124.2<0.00010.082.3 (1.6–3.2)
  Selected factors111.50.00070.052.2 (1.3–3.5)
DCCT mean A1C effect
 Unadjusted130.4<0.00010.102.3 (1.7–3.3)
 Adjusted for
  FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen,  pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H1, GSPNE10.230.640.01.1 (0.7–1.9)
  Backward-selected AGEs (FUR and GSPNE)10.860.350.01.3 (0.8–2.0)
  FUR alone11.650.200.01.4 (0.9–2.2)
  GSPNE alone110.80.0010.041.8 (1.3–2.6)
EDIC study mean A1C effect
 Unadjusted134.7<0.00010.122.4 (1.7–3.3)
 Adjusted for
  FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen,  pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H1, GSPNE124.3<0.00010.092.4 (1.6–3.6)
  Backward-selected AGEs (FUR and GSPNE)120.0<0.00010.072.1 (1.5–3.0)
  • *Within each block, multiple model effects are presented using the set of variables named within each block. For the first block, the joint effect of all 10 AGEs is assessed. The unadjusted model shows the effect of the named variables without adjustment for other factors (e.g., the effect of the 10 AGEs in combination). This is followed by the effect of the covariates after adjustment for one or more specified factors, each from a separate model (e.g., the effect of the 10 AGEs in a model adjusted for the DCCT mean A1C and in a model adjusted for the EDIC study mean A1C).

  • †Odds ratio (OR) is based on 1 SD increase in the continuous variables (DCCT mean A1C 1.6% [17.5 mmol/mol], EDIC study mean A1C 1.1% [12.0 mmol/mol], FUR 231, GSPNE 0.66, MG-H1 0.44).

  • ‡A model adjusted for the following factors that were nominally, statistically, and significantly associated with the outcome in univariate analyses in Table 2: DCCT mean A1C, EDIC study mean A1C up to year 16, DCCT treatment group, and both the log(AER) and abnormal autonomic function at EDIC study baseline.