Table 5

Summary of multivariable logistic regressions of AGE associations with the prevalence of neuropathy without and with adjustment for A1C, and vice versa

Covariate effects evaluated*dfχ2P valueEntropy R2OR (95% CI)
All AGEs (FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen, pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H1, GSPNE)
 Unadjusted1029.70.00090.13
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C1025.40.0050.11
  EDIC study mean A1C1028.30.0020.13
Original AGEs published in 2005 (FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen, pepsin-soluble collagen)
 Unadjusted619.60.0030.09
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C615.20.020.07
  EDIC study mean A1C616.40.010.07
Backward-selected AGEs (MG-H1, FUR)
 Unadjusted226.5<0.00010.12
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C221.1<0.00010.09
  EDIC study mean A1C224.0<0.00010.11
  CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen,  pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H128.20.020.04
  Selected factors218.5<0.00010.08
MG-H1
 Unadjusted113.90.00020.062.0 (1.3–3.1)
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C113.70.00020.062.0 (1.3–3.0)
  EDIC study mean A1C118.3<0.00010.082.3 (1.5–3.5)
  Selected factors116.1<0.00010.072.3 (1.4–3.7)
FUR
 Unadjusted113.30.00030.061.8 (1.3–2.6)
 Adjusted for
  DCCT mean A1C17.80.0050.032.0 (1.3–3.2)
  EDIC study mean A1C17.80.0050.031.6 (1.3–2.5)
  Selected factors12.30.130.011.6 (0.8–3.2)
DCCT mean A1C effect
 Unadjusted15.70.020.031.5 (1.1–2.1)
 Adjusted for
  FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen,  pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H1, GSPNE11.00.310.00.7 (0.4–1.3)
  Backward-selected AGEs (FUR, MG-H1)10.40.510.00.8 (0.5–1.5)
   FUR10.30.560.00.9 (0.5–1.5)
   MG-H115.50.020.021.5 (1.1–2.1)
EDIC study mean A1C effect
 Unadjusted110.00.0020.041.7 (1.2–2.3)
 Adjusted for
  FUR, CML, pentosidine, fluorescence, acid-soluble collagen,  pepsin-soluble collagen, CEL, G-H1, MG-H1, GSPNE17.40.0070.031.6 (1.1–2.4)
  Backward-selected AGEs (FUR, MG-H1)17.70.0060.031.7 (1.1–2.5)
  • *Within each block, multiple model effects are presented using the set of variables named within each block. For the first block, the joint effect of all 10 AGEs is assessed. The unadjusted model shows the effect of the named variables without adjustment for other factors (e.g., the effect of the 10 AGEs in combination). This is followed by the effect of the covariates after adjustment for one or more specified factors, each from a separate model (e.g., the effect of the 10 AGEs in a model adjusted for the DCCT mean A1C and in a model adjusted for the EDIC study mean A1C).

  • †Odds ratio (OR) is based on 1 SD increase in the continuous variables (DCCT mean A1C 1.6% [17.5 mmol/mol], EDIC study mean A1C 1.1% [12.0 mmol/mol], FUR 231, GSPNE 0.66, MG-H1 0.44).

  • ‡A model adjusted for the following factors that were nominally, statistically, and significantly associated with the outcome in univariate analyses in Table 2: DCCT mean A1C, EDIC study mean A1C up to year 16, and also age, LDL, and log(AER) at EDIC study baseline.