Table 5

Basic characteristics and metabolic parameters in the analysis including 1-h hyperglycemia for participants who completed the follow-up in the groups with a single defect and in NGT

NGTIFGIA1cI1hG
N (males/females)381 (267/114)231 (181/50)86 (43/43)150 (132/18)
Basic characteristics
 Age (years)62.2 ± 6.360.5 ± 6.063.6 ± 7.061.7 ± 5.6
66.3 ± 6.364.6 ± 5.967.7 ± 7.065.9 ± 5.6
 BMI (kg/m2)27.1 ± 3.727.6 ± 3.327.3 ± 3.827.2 ± 3.4
27.5 ± 4.127.7 ± 3.627.6 ± 3.927.1 ± 3.3
n.s.n.s.n.s.
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)35.1 ± 2.135.8 ± 1.939.8 ± 1.335.5 ± 2.3
38.7 ± 2.739.0 ± 2.442.6 ± 2.338.7 ± 3.0
Glucose, insulin, C-peptide plasma concentrations
 Gb (mmol/L)5.19 ± 0.325.85 ± 0.225.17 ± 0.295.32 ± 0.21
5.60 ± 0.506.00 ± 0.435.68 ± 0.545.67 ± 0.42
 G60 (mmol/L)6.64 ± 1.167.04 ± 1.096.96 ± 1.069.94 ± 1.14
7.64 ± 1.888.04 ± 1.958.26 ± 1.999.89 ± 2.33
n.s.
 G120 (mmol/L)4.97 ± 1.065.11 ± 1.115.16 ± 1.175.82 ± 1.22
5.68 ± 1.385.85 ± 1.345.78 ± 1.356.39 ± 1.88
 Gm (mmol/L)6.31 ± 0.776.77 ± 0.676.50 ± 0.758.10 ± 0.76
7.08 ± 1.167.44 ± 1.187.43 ± 1.218.38 ± 1.54
n.s.
 Ib (pmol/L)45.9 ± 26.264.9 ± 46.450.0 ± 24.650.2 ± 28.5
60.5 ± 38.365.7 ± 44.961.9 ± 27.456.8 ± 33.5
n.s.
 Im (pmol/L)273.1 ± 159.3334.4 ± 185.5294.1 ± 168.3373.4 ± 238.7
363.1 ± 280.9404.8 ± 268.9391.6 ± 217.8410.9 ± 289.1
 CPb (pmol/L)704 ± 234844 ± 312751 ± 233744 ± 249
827 ± 336877 ± 399882 ± 287825 ± 300
n.s.
 CPm (pmol/L)2,385 ± 6952,599 ± 7782,453 ± 7522,749 ± 792
2,711 ± 9472,848 ± 9862,866 ± 8962,864 ± 881
Insulin sensitivity/resistance
 HOMA-IR (nondim.)1.78 ± 1.052.83 ± 2.071.92 ± 0.991.98 ± 1.12
2.55 ± 1.692.97 ± 2.142.64 ± 1.262.41 ± 1.47
n.s.
 PREDIM (mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1)6.15 ± 1.735.21 ± 1.395.81 ± 1.475.42 ± 1.59
5.27 ± 1.764.85 ± 1.604.91 ± 1.455.01 ± 1.61
BCF and insulin secretion
 GSENS (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)133.1 ± 68.9130.4 ± 64.9121.7 ± 53.495.2 ± 35.0
131.9 ± 63.4134.9 ± 69.0125.9 ± 64.6101.4 ± 42.6
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 RSENS (pmol ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)1,039 ± 7481,058 ± 821975 ± 883854 ± 628
974 ± 6431,006 ± 788892 ± 625820 ± 600
n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 PFR (nondim.)1.79 ± 0.671.84 ± 0.631.74 ± 0.901.65 ± 0.53
1.85 ± 0.721.89 ± 0.602.01 ± 0.681.78 ± 0.78
n.s.n.s.n.s.
 ISRr (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)297.8 ± 111.7261.7 ± 96.6290.3 ± 111.5203.8 ± 65.4
256.9 ± 110.1224.5 ± 107.2254.7 ± 106.2200.0 ± 86.1
n.s.
 ISRb (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)88.2 ± 28.9107.0 ± 39.093.0 ± 29.293.0 ± 31.4
102.1 ± 40.7109.1 ± 48.4107.7 ± 35.2102.5 ± 37.5
n.s.
 ISRt (nmol ⋅ m−2)43.3 ± 13.246.3 ± 14.644.9 ± 15.252.0 ± 15.2
49.6 ± 18.251.5 ± 18.652.8 ± 18.153.9 ± 17.4
n.s.
CLins (L ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)1.52 ± 0.451.32 ± 0.371.45 ± 0.411.40 ± 0.52
1.36 ± 0.401.27 ± 0.401.29 ± 0.351.32 ± 0.45
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. For each parameter, we report baseline value (top), value at 48 months (middle), and indication of significant variation (↑ or ↓ for significant increase or decrease, respectively, and n.s. [not significant] otherwise) (bottom). IGT was excluded because of low sample size. HbA1c (%) at baseline and 48 months, respectively: 5.4 ± 0.19, 5.7 ± 0.25 (NGT); 5.4 ± 0.17, 5.7 ± 0.22 (IFG); 5.8 ± 0.12, 6.0 ± 0.21 (IA1c); 5.4 ± 0.21, 5.7 ± 0.27 (I1hG) (from http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp). CPb, CPm, basal (fasting) and mean C-peptide, respectively; Gb, G60, G120, Gm, glucose at basal, 60 min, and 120 min and mean glucose; Ib, Im, basal and mean insulin; nondim., nondimensional.