Table 2

Basic characteristics and metabolic parameters for the different groups of participants with single and with double defect

IFGIGTIA1cIFG+IGTIFG+IA1cIGT+IA1c
N (males/females)643 (540/103)57 (39/18)*198 (116/82)96 (79/17)327 (262/65)24 (10/14)ǁ
Basic characteristics
 Age (years)60.9 ± 6.063.1 ± 7.1*63.8 ± 6.562.5 ± 6.462.0 ± 5.666.2 ± 5.9ǁ
 BMI (kg/m2)28.1 ± 3.628.8 ± 3.727.7 ± 4.528.8 ± 4.028.3 ± 4.528.8 ± 3.4
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)35.9 ± 1.935.8 ± 1.839.9 ± 1.235.6 ± 2.340.5 ± 1.6§40.4 ± 1.4ǁ
Glucose, insulin, C-peptide plasma concentrations
 Gb (mmol/L)5.95 ± 0.295.22 ± 0.37*5.21 ± 0.336.07 ± 0.326.04 ± 0.325.16 ± 0.30ǁ
 G60 (mmol/L)8.99 ± 2.1110.44 ± 1.63*8.21 ± 1.9311.51 ± 1.929.79 ± 2.13§10.35 ± 1.65ǁ
 G120 (mmol/L)5.56 ± 1.178.72 ± 0.73*5.44 ± 1.269.09 ± 0.875.75 ± 1.17§8.91 ± 0.70
 Gm (mmol/L)7.81 ± 1.28.99 ± 0.98*7.16 ± 1.179.96 ± 1.148.28 ± 1.16§8.91 ± 0.94ǁ
 Ib (pmol/L)65.3 ± 45.659.5 ± 34.5*53.7 ± 31.773.1 ± 40.165.2 ± 39.564.4 ± 32.5
 Im (pmol/L)393.6 ± 245.6487.3 ± 328.9359.5 ± 231.8524.9 ± 316.4419.7 ± 303.6§452.0 ± 234.0
 CPb (pmol/L)880 ± 306844 ± 295810 ± 311992 ± 359919 ± 332908 ± 310
 CPm (pmol/L)2,849 ± 8483,128 ± 1,0332,730 ± 9033,271 ± 9682,920 ± 955§3,079 ± 1,018
Insulin sensitivity/resistance
 HOMA-IR (nondim.)2.89 ± 2.052.32 ± 1.37*2.08 ± 1.263.30 ± 1.842.94 ± 1.842.48 ± 1.31ǁ
 PREDIM (mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1)4.84 ± 1.393.93 ± 1.11*5.55 ± 1.713.47 ± 1.144.71 ± 1.52§3.78 ± 0.90ǁ
BCF and insulin secretion
 GSENS (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)114.1 ± 53.698.4 ± 37.4116.2 ± 56.294.2 ± 44.6101.7 ± 49.894.5 ± 36.5
 RSENS (pmol ⋅ m−2 ⋅ mmol/L−1)917 ± 688967 ± 554906 ± 798907 ± 504744 ± 551893 ± 516
 PFR (nondim.)1.88 ± 0.631.23 ± 0.30*1.71 ± 0.731.37 ± 0.351.83 ± 0.59§1.21 ± 0.31ǁ
 ISRr (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)222.3 ± 90.1183.6 ± 67.0*274.8 ± 117.6143.7 ± 62.7208.8 ± 87.2§202.4 ± 70.3ǁ
 ISRb (pmol ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)111.3 ± 38.6104.9 ± 37.7100.7 ± 39.1123.7 ± 45.3115.1 ± 41.0112.3 ± 40.0
 ISRt (nmol ⋅ m−2)52.5 ± 16.462.0 ± 21.0*50.8 ± 18.164.5 ± 19.354.1 ± 17.9§60.7 ± 20.8
CLins (L ⋅ min−1 ⋅ m−2)1.30 ± 0.391.29 ± 0.431.39 ± 0.421.23 ± 0.411.29 ± 0.411.30 ± 0.44
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. HbA1c (%): 5.4 ± 0.17 (IFG), 5.4 ± 0.16 (IGT), 5.8 ± 0.11 (IA1c), 5.4 ± 0.21 (IFG+IGT), 5.9 ± 0.15 (IFG+IA1c), 5.8 ± 0.13 (IGT+IA1c) (from http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp). CPb, CPm, basal (fasting) and mean C-peptide, respectively; Gb, G60, G120, Gm, glucose at basal, 60 min, and 120 min and mean glucose; Ib, Im, basal and mean insulin; nondim., nondimensional.

  • * Significant difference for IGT vs. IFG,

  • IA1c vs. IFG,

  • IA1c vs. IGT,

  • § IFG+IA1c vs. IFG+IGT,

  • ǁ IGT+IA1c vs. IFG+IGT,

  • IGT+IA1c vs. IFG+IA1c.